Kathy Lynn Emerson
to update and correct
her very out-of-date
Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984)
NOTE: this document exists only in electronic format
and is ©2008-16 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)
JANE or JOAN SACHEVERELL
see JANE or JOAN STATHAM
see MARY HUNGERFORD
see ANNE SPENCER
ANNE SACKVILLE (1514-1554+)
Anne Sackville was the daughter of John Sackville of Chiddingley, Kent (1484-September 27, 1557) and Margaret Boleyn (b.c.1487). By 1537, she married Sir Nicholas Pelham of Laughton, Sussex (1517-September 15, 1560). They had ten children, including Sir John (1537-October 13, 1580), Mary, Anthony, Sir Thomas (c.1540-December 2, 1624), Robert, Anne, Elizabeth, Edward, and Nicholas (b.1554). Portrait: effigy in St. Michael’s Church, Lewes, Sussex
ANNE SACKVILLE (d. May 14,1595)
Anne Sackville was the daughter of Richard Sackville (d. April 21, 1566) and Winifred Brydges (1510-June 16, 1586). At an early age, she married Gregory Fiennes (1539-September 25, 1594), restored as Lord Dacre of the South in 1558. Fiennes was a weak character, dominated first by his mother and then by his wife. The historian William Camden refers to him as "a little crack-brained." Anne was godmother to Douglas Howard's illegitimate son, Robert Dudley, in 1574. She had one daughter, Elizabeth, who died young, but no children who survived her. Her husband wanted to leave all his property to his sister, Margaret Fiennes Lennard. Anne objected. By a 1571 settlement, Sampson Lennard was to receive eighteen manors when Dacre died and pay Anne £2000. In her will, she left money for the founding of an almshouse in Tothill Field, adjacent to her house in Westminster. She also left property to the Cecils and imposed restrictions on entailed property and inserted a reminder that Lennard still owed her £2000. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Fiennes [née Sackville], Anne." Portrait: life size effigy on her tomb in Chelsea Old Church; effigy on her mother’s tomb in Westminster Abbey.
ANNE SACKVILLE (1564-1626+)
Anne Sackville was the daughter of Thomas Sackville (1536-April 19,1608), Lord Buckhurst and 1st earl of Dorset and Cecily Baker (1535-October 1, 1615). On September 28, 1585 at St. John the Baptist, Lewes, Sussex, she married Sir Henry Glemham of Glemham Hall, Little Glemham, Suffolk (1561-August 30, 1632), by whom she had Thomas (1587-1649), Anne (1589-January 10, 1638/9), Mary, Cecily, Henry (1596-January 17, 1670), and Elizabeth. Her husband settled the manor of Burwell on her. In 1600, Glemham was in Rome. On his return, he was arrested for associating with Jesuits and imprisoned in the Fleet. In December 1600, Anne's father wrote to Sir Robert Cecil that she was dangerously ill and asked for Glemham to be released. Anne, having recovered, wrote to Cecil in 1601 to thank him for freeing her husband. The History of Parliament, although without details, mentions her involvement in a libel suit in 1602, the accusation that she was plotting on behalf of the Infanta of Spain to succeed Queen Elizabeth, and the fact that her "exertions to secure the largest possible share of her indulgent father's estate" had a disastrous effect on his career.
ANNE SACKVILLE (c.1586-September 25, 1664)
Anne Sackville was the daughter of Robert Sackville, 2nd earl of Dorset (1561-1609) and Margaret Howard (1562-August 19, 1591). On July 1, 1609 at St. Bride, London, she married Edward Seymour, Viscount Beauchamp (June 12, 1587-September 1618). They had no children. Her second husband, married on October 7, 1622, was Edward Lewis of Edington, Wiltshire (c.1586-October 10, 1630). They had a daughter, Anne. Portrait: although it bears an inscription stating the sitter is Frances Prynne (d. September 6, 1626), wife of Sir Francis Seymour, baron Seymour of Trowbridge (c.1590-July 12, 1664), they were not married until 1620. The portrait was painted by William Larkin in 1615 and is now generally accepted to be Anne Sackville.
see CECILY BAKER
ISABEL SACKVILLE (c.1498-October 21, 1570)
Isabel Sackville was the daughter of Richard Sackville of Withyham, Sussex (1460-July 18, 1524) and Isabel Diggs. She became a nun and by 1526 was prioress of St. Mary Clerkenwell. This Augustinian priory was dissolved in 1539. Isabel received a pension of £50 a year. She also received a bequest from her brother-in-law, John Baker, added in a codicil to his will dated December 5, 1558. Her sister Catherine (d.1524) had been his first wife.
see MARGARET HOWARD
see MARY CURZON
see WINIFRED BRYDGES
DOROTHY SADLER (d.1578+)
Dorothy Sadler was the youngest daughter of Ralph Sadler of Standon, Hertfordshire (1507-March 30, 1587) and Margaret Mitchell (d.1545+). She married Edward Erlington/Elrington of Birch Hall, Theydon Bois (c.1527-1578). They had five children. In July 1572 and again on September 19, 1578 (when she was newly widowed), Dorothy entertained Queen Elizabeth at Birch Hall. She inherited it from her husband, along with his London house and garden.
see ELINOR CORRIATT
see GERTRUDE MARKHAM
see JUDITH STAUNTON
see MARGARET MITCHELL
see ANNE COKE
BLANCH ST. AUBYN
see BLANCH WITTINGTON
MARY ST. BARBE
see MARY BLAKENEY
URSULA ST. BARBE (d. June 18, 1602)
Ursula St. Barbe was the daughter of Henry St. Barbe of Ashington, Somerset (1489-1567) and Eleanor Lewknor. She married first Sir Richard Worsley of Appuldurcome, Isle of Wight (d. 1566) and by him had two sons, John and George. Probably in August 1566, she took as her second husband, Sir Francis Walsingham (c.1532-April 6, 1590), bringing the estates of Carisbrooke Priory and a house at Appuldurcombe on the Isle of Wight ans her dowry. Walsingham's secretary, Robert Beale, was married to Ursula's sister Edith. In 1567, Ursula's two sons by Worsley were both killed in an accidental gunpowder explosion. There followed a lengthy legal battle with her brother-in-law over inheritance rights which was finally settled, in Ursula's favor, in 1571. When Sir Francis was appointed English Ambassador to France, Ursula went with him to his new post. She apparently did some traveling on her own, since had been in the Auverge region of France before meeting her husband in Cleremont for the journey to Paris, where she arrived on March 19, 1572. On April 21, she paid a visit to the French court, where she was entertained by Queen Dowager Catherine de Medici and others. In August 1572, Ursula, her husband, and their daughter Frances (c. October 1567-February 17, 1633) were in their house on the quai des Bernardins in Faubourg St. Germain, when the religious purge called the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre took place. Sir Philip Sidney was already there as a houseguest and other Englishmen in Paris sought shelter there as the killing continued. King Charles IX sent a guard under the command of the Duc de Nevers to protect the English embassy, but three Englishmen who did not reach there were killed and a Huguenot general who had sought asylum there was dragged out by royal troops and later hanged. Some 3000 Huguenots were slaughtered in Paris in less than a week and some 70,000 died elsewhere in France. Sir Francis arranged for his wife and daughter to be smuggled out of the embassy and taken back to England but was obliged to stay on himself. A second daughter, Mary, was born in early January 1573, but she died in July 1580. In England, the Walsinghams lived first at Footscray, Kent, then from 1563 at Parkbury, Hertfordshire, and after 1579 at Barn Elms in Surrey, where they entertained Queen Elizabeth several times during the 1580s. In London they were first in a house in St. Giles outside Cripplegate, then (1568) a dwelling facing London wall east of St. Mary Axe called the Papey, and finally, in Seething Lane. Sir Francis was Queen Elizabeth's spymaster and in her confidence but the queen does not seem to have cared for Lady Walsingham despite a New Year's gift in 1579/80 of a pair of gloves set with gold buttons and in 1580/1 of a jewel in the form of a scorpion wrought in agate and gold with sparks of diamond and ruby. Sir Francis died in the house in Seething Lane and was buried in St. Paul's. Ursula was the sole executor of his will. According to his biographer, Conyers Read, Walsingham died solvent but probably died poor. After a marriage that had lasted twenty-four years, Ursula lived on her own for a further twelve, during which time she saw her daughter, Frances, become a widow for the second time. Frances's first husband was Sir Philip Sidney, her second Robert Devereux, the earl of Essex executed for treason in 1601. In 1602, in debt to the state, Ursula asked the queen for the reversion of th the priory of Carisbrook, formerly belonging to her first husband. She had leased the property since 1590, during which time she had paid a total of £1,600. She stated it was the only living left her. It is unclear how the queen responded. Ursula died at Barn Elms and was buried beside her husband in St. Paul's. In addition to other bequests, she left £50 to her waiting woman, Alice Poole, and £10 to Nurse Hoode. Portrait: The portrait dated1583 and long identified as Ursula St. Barbe, is now labeled as an unknown woman by the NPG.
ALICE ST. JOHN (1486-1552/3)
Alice St. John was the daughter of Sir John St. John of Bletsoe, Bedfordshire (1450-1525) and Sybil Morgan. She was a kinswoman of Margaret Beaufort, countess of Richmond and Derby (her great niece) and it was due to the countess that Alice married Henry Parker of Hallingbury Place and Mark Hall, Essex (1480/1-November 27, 1556), who had been brought up in Margaret Beaufort's household. They were married before 1505. He was created Lord Morley in 1518, so she was not the Alice Parker who was a chamberer in Princess Mary's household in Wales in 1525-7. Lord Morley did have a sister named Alice. If that Alice Parker wasn’t the one with Mary in 1525, she or their sister Jane may have been the Mrs. Parker who was part of the household of the countess of Richmond in 1509. Alice St. John Parker, Lady Morley, attended the Field of Cloth of Gold and was part of the processions at Anne Boleyn’s coronation and Jane Seymour's funeral. Alice's children were Jane (c.1505-February 13, 1542), Margaret, Henry (c.1513-January 9, 1552 or December 3, 1553), Elizabeth, and Francis. In June 1536, with her husband and a daughter, probably Margaret, Lady Shelton, Alice visited Princess Mary at Hunsdon, which was situated only six miles from Great Hallingbury. This was shortly after the execution of Anne Boleyn and her brother George, Lord Rochford. Rochford had been Alice's son-in-law, the husband of her eldest daughter, Jane. In 1542, the year in which Jane Rochford was executed, Lady Morley paid part of the cost of a new bell for the church in Great Hallingbury. Julia Fox, in her Jane Boleyn, suggests (although she admits it is a bit fanciful) that this may have been a memorial to Alice's daughter.
ALICE ST. JOHN (c.1521-1567+)
Alice St. John was the daughter of Sir John St. John of Bledsoe (1483-December 19, 1558) and Margaret Waldegrave (1491-1526). She married Edmund Elmes of Lilford (Lillford/Lylford), Northamptonshire. As the aunt of Margaret Russell, daughter of her sister, Margaret, who died in 1562, she took charge of the girl from age two to age seven. Alice's own children were John (b.1542), Anne (b.1544), Margaret (b.1546), Elizabeth (b.1548), and Sir Thomas (1551-September 1612).
ANNE ST. JOHN (d.1602+)
Anne St. John was the daughter of John, 2nd baron St. John (January 1549-October 23, 1596) and Catherine Dormer (c.1549-March 23, 1615). On February 7, 1596/7, she married William Howard, 3rd baron Howard of Effingham (December 27, 1577-November 28, 1615). According to contemporary accounts she did not know she was with child before she surprised herself and the entire court by giving birth to a daughter, Elizabeth (January 19, 1602/3-November 1671) during the Christmas festivities of 1602.
ANNE ST. JOHN
see ANNE LEIGHTON; ANNE NEVILLE
CATHERINE ST. JOHN
Catherine St. John was the daughter of Sir John St. John (1450-1525) and Sybil Morgan. She married first, in 1507, Sir Griffith ap Rhys of Carmarthen, Wales (d. 1521). They had a daughter, Mary Griffith (1519-March 31, 1588). Her second husband was Sir Piers Edgecumbe of West Stonehouse and Cothele, Cornwall (1468/9-August 14, 1539). She was his second wife. He had three sons and four daughters by his first wife, Jane Dernford. In 1524-5, Sir Peter and his wife Catherine were sent three gallons of wine "at their first homecoming." In November 1531, her stepson, Rhys ap Gruffydd, was attainted for treason but her jointure was protected. She was receiving about £72/year in 1532. There was an outbreak of measles in the household in March 1534. Catherine was executor of her husband's will in 1539. M. St. Clare Byrne identifies Catherine as the Lady Edgecumbe who was a lady of the Privy Chamber to Anne of Cleves in 1540. Although other sources say that was Winifred Essex, her stepson's wife, Winifred may not yet have been married and in any case would not have been Lady Edgecumbe because her husband was not knighted until 1542. The "Lady Edgecumbe" who served Catherine Howard in the Privy Chamber was probably also Catherine Edgecumbe, for the same reasons. Catherine made her will on December 4, 1553, at Cothele, Cornwall and it was proved on December 12, 1553. In it she names a daughter Mary Luttrell (wife of Sir John Luttrell), to whom she leaves the household goods at Dunster, Somerset, that had belonged to Sir Griffith ap Rhys.
CATHERINE ST. JOHN
see CATHERINE DORMER
ELIZABETH ST. JOHN
see ELIZABETH BLOUNT; ELIZABETH CHAMBER; ELIZABETH PAULET
JOAN ST. JOHN
see JOAN ROYDON
JUDITH ST. JOHN (c.1545-c.1607)
Judith St. John was the daughter of Oliver St. John, 1st baron St. John of Bletsoe (1516-April 21, 1582) and Agnes Fisher (1522-August 28, 1572). She married Sir John Pelham of Laughton (1537-October 13, 1580) c. 1570 and had a son, Oliver (d. January 19, 1584/5). Portrait: effigy made of red marble painted white in Stanmer Church, Brighton, Sussex.
LUCY ST. JOHN
see LUCY HUNGERFORD
MARGARET ST. JOHN (c.1524-August 27, 1562)
Margaret St. John was the daughter of Sir John St. John of Bletsoe (1483-December 19, 1558) and Margaret Waldegrave (1491-1526). Her first husband, to whom she was married in 1543, was John Gostwick of Willington, Bedfordshire (1520-December 1545). In 1546, she married Francis Russell, 2nd earl of Bedford (1527-July 28, 1585), by whom she was the mother of Edward (1551-1572), John (c.1553-1584), Francis (1553-July 27, 1585), William (c.1558-August 9, 1613), Anne (d. February 9, 1604), Elizabeth (d. March 24, 1605), and Margaret (1560-1616). Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, suggests that it was Margaret who infected the queen with smallpox in 1562, as Margaret died right after a visit to court. A few weeks later, the queen fell ill.
AGNES or ANNE ST. LEGER
see AGNES or ANNE WARHAM
ANNE ST. LEGER (c.1476-April 21, 1526)
Anne St. Leger was the daughter of Sir Thomas St. Leger (d. November 8, 1483) and Anne Plantagenet, Duchess of Exeter (August 10, 1439-January 1475/6), sister of King Edward IV. In 1483, she was to marry the marquess of Dorset’s heir and the Holland estates of her mother’s first husband were settled on her. The death of King Edward on April 9, 1483 changed this plan. After Richard III succeeded to the throne, the duke of Buckingham was made Anne’s guardian. Anne later married George Manners, 12th baron Ros or Roos (d. October 1513) and was the mother of Thomas, 1st earl of Rutland (d. September 20, 1543), Margaret (c.1486-1558+), Richard (1490-c.1550), Eleanor (1505-September 16, 1547), Catherine (c.1511-1547+), Oliver, John, Anne, Elizabeth, Anthony, Cecily, and another unnamed son. Portrait: effigy in St. George's Chapel, Windsor.
ANNE ST. LEGER (d. 1533+)
Anne St. Leger was the daughter of Ralph St. Leger of Ulcombe, Kent (d.1470) and his wife Anne. She married first Sir George Warham of Malsanger, Oakley, Hampshire, and then Edward Thwaites of Chilham, Leeds, and Stourmouth, Kent. He had an annual income of £103 13s. 4d. and earned a place in history through his passionate belief in the prophecies of the Nun of Kent. In 1527, he published an account of these called A Marvelous Worke. Unfortunately, this meant he was arrested along the nun (Elizabeth Barton) and her supporters. He was pardoned, partly through the influence of Sir Anthony St. Leger, Anne's nephew. He was deprived of his holdings in Calais and of his post as Lieutenant of the Lantern at Calais Gate and fined 1000 marks. He had been residing at Leeds at the time of his arrest and his possessions, some of which belonged to Anne, were inventoried on April 19, 1533. Her wardrobe and jewels had considerable value.
ANNE ST. LEGER (1555-1636)
Anne St. Leger was the daughter of Sir Warham St. Leger (1525-1597) and his first wife, Ursula Neville (c.1528-1575). The family settled in Ireland from 1568-70 but Lady St. Leger found herself besieged in 1569 and the attempt at colonization ended the following year. From 1570-72, St. Leger had custody of the earl of Desmond at Leeds Castle in Kent. Anne married first Thomas Digges of St. Mary Aldermanbury (1546-August 24, 1595), a scientific and mathematical writer. His will was dated June 10, 1591 and was proved September 1, 1595. Curiously, the entry for Digges in the History of Parliament identifies him as of Wootton and Wingham, Kent and his wife as Agnes St. Leger, daughter of William St. Leger of Ulcomebe and Leeds Castle, Kent. It also dates his death as September 21 and the date the will was proved as November 1595. The will itself can be found at www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Digges was survived by sons Dudley (1582/3-1639) and Leonard (1588-1635) and daughters Margaret (1587-September 1619) and Ursula (baptized July 19,1594). He and Anne had two other children, William and Mary, who died young. Digges left Anne, his sole executrix, an annuity, all her apparel, chains, and jewels and the house in London, with its staff and furnishings until Dudley was twenty-four. She had to pay a yearly rent. Similarly, for a yearly rent, she was to have possession of the country house at Chevening, Kent until she remarried. She erected a monument to Digges in St. Mary Aldermanbury. It was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. As a wealthy widow, Anne was courted by Edward Andrews of Gray's Inn and by Francis Brace (d. July 2, 1599) but her second husband married on August 26, 1603, was Thomas Russell of Rushock, Worcestershire and Alderminster. His will, dated October 3, 1633 and proved May 5, 1634, speaks of a bond already established to pay Anne £100 a year. He left the bulk of his estate to a friend. Russell, a poet, was an overseer of the will of William Shakespeare in 1616. This connection is probably why Leonard Digges wrote commendatory verses for the First Folio and the 1640 edition of Shakespeare's Poems.
ANNE ST. LEGER
see ANNE KNYVETT
ISABEL ST. LEGER
see ISABEL KEYES
KATHERINE ST. LEGER
see KATHERINE MOYLE
MARY ST. LEGER
see MARY SOUTHWELL
MARY ST. LEGER (after 1540-1623)
Mary St. Leger was the eldest daughter of Sir John St. Leger of Annerly, Devon (c.1520-October 8, 1596) and Catherine Neville. She brought the island of Lundy to her marriage c. 1565 to Richard Grenville of Stowe, Cornwall (June 5, 1541-September 2, 1591). They were the parents of Roger (d. December 1565), Bernard or Barnard (1567-1636), John (d.1595), Katherine (d.1623+), Mary, Ursula (d.1643), Bridget (1579-1623+), Rebecca, and another son who died young. The Grenvilles were in Cork in Ireland from 1568-1579 and at one point in June 1569, Mary and Lady St. Leger (Ursula Neville, wife of Sir Warham St. Leger, Mary's cousin) were besieged by rebels and had to seek refuge with the earl of Ormond at Kilkenny. A detailed account of this can be found in Sir Richard Grenville of the Revenge by A. L. Rowse. Their husbands were at that time in England, seeking further support against the rebels. In England, the family lived at Buckland, Bideford, and at St. Leger house in Southwark. In 1580, the wardships of John, Dorothy, and Mary Arundell, children of Sir John of Trerice, went to sir Richard. It would have been customary for them to join the household. In 1582, a Star Chamber case came about because Mary complained to her husband of the abuses offered her father by Thomas Hillig of Bodmin and Grenville brought suit against Hillig for slander in the Stannary Court of Blackmore. On February 6, 1591, the settlement for the marriage of Bernard Grenville also provided for Mary's jointure. After her husband's death she was to have the use of the manors of Kilkhampton, Wolston, and Bideford, so long as she remained unmarried. Sir Richard, captain of the Revenge, was killed in the Battle of Flores. Ten months later, on July 10, 1592, his eldest son and heir married Elizabeth Bevil in the church at Withiel. As a widow, Mary lived at Bideford. When her father died in 1596, her sister, Eulalia Arscott, widow of Edmund Tremayne, was granted letters of administration but she renounced the administration the following year. On the death of their brother John (d. 1605+), Mary and her sisters inherited was was left of the estate, but by that time there was little of worth remaining. Mary left a will. Along with numerous small bequests, she left the bulk of her property to her daughters Katherine and Bridget. They were also to receive a yearly allowance from their brother for the maintenance of their sister Ursula.
URSULA ST. LEGER
see URSULA NEVILLE
BRIDGET ST. LOE
see BRIDGET MALTE
ELIZABETH ST. LOE (d.1559+)
Elizabeth St. Loe was the daughter of Sir John St. Loe of Sutton Court, Chew Magna, Somerset (c.1479-December 1558) and the sister of William St. Loe of Tormarton, Goucestershire (d.1565). Sources disagree on her mother's identity. Sir John St. Loe married a woman named Margaret who was still living in 1559. The History of Parliament (which gives Sir John's life dates as 1500/1-1559) says she was Margaret Kingston, daughter of Sir William Kingston, whose ward St. Loe had been. Other sources give her surname as Poyntz or FitzNicholas (the latter from Charles Herbert Mayo in Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset, citing the Chew Magna Register). Elizabeth St. Loe was placed in household of Elizabeth Stafford, duchess of Norfolk during the reign of Mary Tudor. The duchess, who died on November 30, 1558, left her a new French hood and a silver cup with a cover in her will (proved January 19, 1558/9). Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, identifies Elizabeth St. Loe as one of the first six maids of honor of the new reign at one point in her unpublished PhD dissertation and as a maid of the Privy Chamber in another. In Appendix 1, the dates listed for Elizabeth St. Loe run from January 1558/9 to 1569. According to Mary S. Lovell, Bess of Hardwick Empire Builder, a biography of Sir William St. Loe's second wife, at the time Elizabeth's father drew up his first will in 1550, she was to have married James, 6th Lord Mountjoy (c.1533-October 28, 1582/3) by an arrangement made with his late father, Charles, 5th baron, who had died in 1544. Elizabeth was to have a dowry of 500 marks. Mountjoy was to have £200 if the marriage went ahead. It did not. On May 17, 1558, Mountjoy married someone else. Under the terms of the will, the £200 was then to go to Elizabeth, along with the 500 marks. In late September 1559, from London, Lovell reports that Elizabeth's new sister-in-law, Bess of Hardwick, sent her two chains of gold worth £21. Soon after, Bess was appointed a lady of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth. This reference is a bit confusing, since Elizabeth must already have been at court. To add to the confusion, there was a third Elizabeth St. Loe, a cousin who conspired against Sir William and Bess (see MARGARET SCUTT). It appears, therefore, that there may have been two women named Elizabeth St. Loe at court (Elizabeth and Bess) and a third (the cousin), in the Tower of London, all at the same time in early 1560.
ELIZABETH ST. LOE
see ELIZABETH HARDWICK
MARGARET ST. LOE
see MARGARET SCUTT
MARY ST. LOE (1539-1558+)
Mary St.Loe was the daughter of Sir William St.Loe of Tormarton (1518-1565/6) by his first wife, Jane Baynton (1523-1549). She entered the service of Elizabeth Tudor in 1553, when she was fourteen, at a time when her father was also part of that household. She is one of six gentlewomen about whom John Harington wrote a sonnet entitled "The prayse of six gentle Women attending of the Ladye Elizabeth her grace at Hatfield." Her stanza calls her "stable . . . as rock within the sea." Mary continued in Elizabeth’s service after she became queen.
FAITH ST. POLL
see FAITH GRANTHAM
FRANCES ST. POLL
see FRANCES WRAY
MARIA de SALAZAR (d.1505+)
Maria de Salazar was identified by Agnes Strickland in her Lives of the Queens of England as the daughter of Captain Salazar, captain of the guard to Ferdinand of Aragon, and his wife, a connection of the noble de Foix family and therefore related to Ferdinand's daughter, Catherine of Aragon. Maria was in the service of Ferdinand's wife, Isabella of Castile, in 1501, when Isabella sent her to England to serve Catherine, who was to marry the Prince of Wales, Arthur Tudor, only to be widowed a few months later. On September 8, 1505, Catherine wrote to her father on Maria's behalf. The following is part of the transcript in Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies, Vol. I, by Mary Anne Everett Green (1846): "It is known to your highness how donna Maria de Salazar was lady to the queen my lady, who is in blessed glory, and how her highness sent her to come with me; and in addition to the service which she did to her highness, she has served me well, and in all this has done as a worthy woman. Wherefore I supplicate your highness that, as well on account of the one service as the other, you would command her to be paid, since I have nothing wherewith to pay her, and also because her sister, the wife of Monsieur d’Aymeria [possibly Alimeria in Andalusia?], has in view for her a marriage in Flanders, of which she cannot avail herself, nor hope that it can be accomplished, without knowing what the said donna Maria has for a marriage portion." The letter goes on to ask that Ferdinand recover that which her father, Captain Salazar, gave her, and the pension Ferdinand had granted him, and his daughter after him, of two hundred milreas. The implication is that Captain Salazar has died. Catherine suggests that Martin Sanchez de Camudio be sent to recover all that belonged to Maria "because he is near the house of her father." According to another letter, written a year or more earlier, Camudio was in Bilbao, but this may or may not be relevant. Catherine further asks that this "be done quickly, in order that donna Maria de Salazar may not lose this marriage, which is most good and honorable." Maria's surname has been variously spelled Saluzzi, Saluces, and even Salinas, leading some authorities to assume that Maria de Salazar and Maria de Salinas were the same person. To me this seems unlikely (see her entry), but we do not know enough to be certain either way. There is no record of Ferdinand honoring his daughter's request or any further mention of this Maria under the surname Salazar. The only connection I’ve found between a Salazar family and a captain of the guard to Ferdinand of Aragon appears to be in the wrong generation. Alonzo Gonzalez de Castille was a captain of the guard to Ferdinand and Isabella (and Governor of the Royal Fortress of the Alcazar de Segovia). In 1499, he married Constanzia de Vasconcellos (1480-1530), a lady in waiting to Queen Isabella, by whom he had a daughter, Ana de Castillo (1500-1560) who married Tomas de Frias Salazar. Tomas was the son of Rodrigo de Freas Salazar (d.1509) of Burgos in Castille and Maria Ortis de la Costana. Rodrigo and Maria also had a daughter named Maria, who married her kinsman, Martin Gonzales de Salazar. It is possible that our Maria could be a sister of this Rodrigo, which would make her the daughter of Rodrigo Alonso de Salazar of Burgos and Maria Alonso de Borrilla Ribamartin (daughter of Inigo de Borrilla), but the life dates are missing and there does not seem to be a closer connection to a captain of the guard, although surely Ferdinand had more than one during his reign. We are left to speculate.
see ELIZABETH SALUSBURY
MARIA de SALINAS (d. October 19, 1539)
Maria de Salinas was the daughter of Juan Sancriz de Salinas (d. c. July 1495) and Inez Albernos. Some sources identify her as Maria de Salizar, who is the subject of a letter from Catherine of Aragon to her father, King Ferdinand, on September 8, 1505, but this seems unlikely (see entry under Maria de Salazar). Juan de Salinas was secretary to Isabella, Princess of Portugal , oldest sister of Catherine of Aragon. After his death, his six children were raised by his brother Martin (d. September 28, 1503) and his wife, Maria Martinez de Buendia. Maria came to England in about 1503 to replace Maria de Rojas, who may have been her cousin, as one of Catherine of Aragon's ladies. In 1511, she was godmother to Charles Brandon's daughter, Mary. By 1514, she was considered to be Queen Catherine's closest friend. She received letters of denization on May 29, 1516, shortly before her June 5th marriage to William, 10th Baron Willoughby d'Eresby (d.1526), master of the royal hart hounds. They were given the loan of Greenwich Palace for their honeymoon and the manor of Grimsthorpe, Lincolnshire as a wedding present, as well as a dowry of 1,100 marks. Maria continued to be a part of the queen's household after her marriage and an indication of the favor in which she was held by both the king and the queen can be seen in the name of one of King Henry VIII's new ships—the Mary Willoughby. Maria had three children, Henry and Francis, who died young, and Catherine (March 22, 1520-September 19, 1580), who became the ward of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk upon Willoughby's death. Court battles ensued at this point over the Willoughby lands and title and continued in Chancery and the Star Chamber after Suffolk married Catherine in 1534. Maria had been forced to leave Queen Catherine's service in 1532, but she continued to correspond with the cast-off queen and sent her news of her daughter, Mary Tudor. In 1535, when the former queen was ill, Maria was denied permission to visit her but she traveled to Kimbolton Castle anyway. As Garrett Mattingly, Catherine's biographer, puts it: "It was a foul, black night, the roads were filthy, she had fallen from her horse, she did not care what his orders were, she was not going another mile." Faced with such determination, Sir Edmund Bedingfield, Catherine's jailer, let Maria in. She was with Catherine when she died on January 7, 1536. Maria had two dower houses, Parham Old Hall in Suffolk and the Barbican in London, and she also resided at Eresby and Grimsthorpe, where she died. She is said to have been buried near Queen Catherine. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Willoughby [née de Salinas], Maria." Portrait: one was extant in 1910 at Uffington. The portrait below, said to be Maria, is reproduced, without attribution, at an online genealogy site. The DNB entry indicates there is a likeness in the Peterborough Museum. NOTE: the entry in the Oxford DNB identifies Maria's parents as Martin de Salinas and Josepha Gonzales de Sales and speculates that she came to England with Catherine of Aragon or was sent by Queen Isabella in 1501.
see KATHERINE TUDOR
MARY SALISBURY (1484-July 10, 1555)
Mary Salisbury was the daughter of Sir William Salisbury of Horton, Northamptonshire and Elizabeth Wylde. Before 1511, she married William Parr, later baron Parr of Horton (c.1480-September 10, 1547), by whom she had four daughters, Maud (c.1507-1558/9), Anne, Elizabeth, and Mary. She attended Catherine of Aragon at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. Portrait: effigy at Horton Church.
see URSULA STANLEY
see ANNE NEVILLE
see BARBARA MERES
see SUSANNA POYNTZ
ELIZABETH SALUSBURY (d.1588+)
Elizabeth Salusbury was the daughter of Sir John Salusbury of Lleweni, Denbighshire (d.1578) and Jane Myddleton (d.1578+). Her first husband, married by 1566, was John Salesbury of Rûg, Merioneth (1533-November 16, 1580). They had three sons and two daughters. The eldest, Robert (June 20, 1567-July 14, 1599), was brought up by Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick. Elizabeth's second husband, married on August 31, 1584, was Sir Henry Jones of Albermarlais, Carmarthenshire (d.1586). It has been suggested that Elizabeth might have been the Mrs. Jones who was mother of maids at the court of Queen Elizabeth in 1588. As she was by then a widow, this might have been appropriate, except for the fact that her first husband was a known Catholic and her nephew, Thomas Salusbury, had been executed for his part on the Babington Plot in 1586, which plunged the entire family into disgrace.
see HESTER MIDDLETON
see MARGARET THROCKMORTON
KATHERINE SAMPSON (1496-January 1576/7)
Katherine Sampson’s first husband was Edward Dormer, by whom she had one child, Elizabeth. Dormer wrote his will on January 21, 1538/9 and it was proved January 12, 1539/4040. Katherine married second, as his second wife, Sir John Gresham (1495-October 26, 1556), Lord Mayor of London. The marriage took place on July 15, 1553. On July 17, 1553, her daughter Elizabeth married his second son, another John Gresham (born March 13, 1529). Katherine inherited land her second husband owned at North End in Fulham. As Lady Gresham, she gave Anthony Stapleton the ring he left to Rose Trott in a will made in 1569. Katherine was buried in St. Michael Bassishaw on January 9, 1576/7.
TERESA SAMPSONIA (c.1590-1668)
Teresa (Theresia/Teresia) Sampsonia was, according to her tombstone, the daughter of Samphuflux, Prince of Circassia, actually a Circassian chieftain, who was also known as Isna'il Khan. She is sometimes described as a lady of the Persian court and her aunt may have been a member of Shah Abbas's harem. Her name at that time was Sampsonia. In 1608, she married Sir Robert Sherley of Wiston, Sussex (1581-July 13, 1528), explorer and diplomat, who was a hostage in Persia, although a well-treated one. Subsequently, she became a Roman Catholic (as he had since leaving England) and was given the name Teresa. On February 12, 1608, they left Persia, sent on a mission by the shah to recruit European support for his war against the Turk. They traveled by way of the Caspian Sea and the Volga to Moscow, then overland to Poland, arriving in Cracow in the fall to spend the winter there. In the spring, Teresa took up residence in a convent in Poland while Sherley traveled to Emperor Rudolph II's court in Prague, where he was granted the title Count Palatine. Teresa remained in Poland while he continued on to Milan, Florence, and Rome, where he was created a count of the Lateran, and then went to Spain. He had intended to go from Spain to England, but was persuaded by the Spanish to remain in Spain and return to Persia with their ambassador. At that point, Sherley sent for his wife to join him in Madrid. She arrived in Lisbon early in 1611 and joined him in Madrid in March. In June they traveled to Bayonne, where they took passage to Rotterdam. In the summer of 1611, they took ship from Flushing for England, arriving there in August. They went immediately to his family estate at Wiston, where their only child, Henry, was born on November 5, 1611. They left him behind when they sailed from Gravesend on January 7, 1613. With them were "Sir Thomas Powell; Tomasin, his lady" and "Leylye, a Persian woman." They returned to Persia two and a half years later, six and a half years after they’d left, delayed by plots and conspiracies as well as travel conditions. They left Persia for the second time in November 1615, once again on a mission for the shah, and arrived in Spain in September 1617. They remained there until 1622, when they traveled to Rome. It was there that they had their portraits painted by Sir Anthony Van Dyck. In December 1623, the Sherleys were again in England. This time they stayed three years and three months before leaving in March 1627. They returned to Persia early in 1628, and were in Qazvin when Sherley fell ill and died. He was buried under the threshold of his house there. After his death, Lady Teresa was pressured to reconvert. Instead, she left Persia, traveling to Constantinople, where she remained for three years. She left there for Rome, arriving in December 1634. She lived there, in a house near the church of Santa Maria della Scala in Travestera until her death. She gave the church several flambeaux to be lit on the anniversary of the festival of Saint Bacchus. In 1658, she had Sir Robert’s bones brought to Rome and buried in Santa Maria della Scalia, where she was later interred. Portrait: 1622 by Anthony Van Dyck.
see ALICE IBBOT
WINIFRED SAMWELL (d.1601+) (maiden name unknown)
Winifred was the wife of Richard Samwell the younger (1578-1601+), the son of a partner in the Boar's Head Playhouse in Whitechapel. Three generations of the Samwell family were living in the former inn in 1599/1600 when violence erupted over rights to the profits of the playhouse. During an attempt to arrest Winifred's husband on December 24, 1599, a raiding party that included Francis Langley and Susan Woodliffe, both of whom also claimed a share of the profits of the playhouse, seized the money they said was owed them and also, failing to find Richard at home, took Winifred away with them. Her father-in-law later deposed that she had "a yonge infante then of age three weeks . . . suckinge at her Breste. " This child, Rebecca Samwell, had been baptized on November 11, 1599 and was therefore closer to six weeks old. Mother and child were locked up in the Southwark house of Alexander Foxley, bailiff of the court at the Marshalsea prison, until Samwell found money for bail. By April 4, when her husband was arrested and taken to the Marshalsea, Winifred was free. She demanded to see the writ. Langley refused and reportedly beat up both Winifred and one of the Samwell servants. On April 11, 1600, her father-in-law filed suit against Langley, Oliver and Susan Woodliffe, and others. Another daughter, Sara, was baptized on February 24, 1601.
PETRONELLA SAMYNE (d.c.1606) (maiden name unknown)
Petronella Samyne was a London widow who acted as the English representative for her two sons, who were importers of silk and spent most of their time in Verona. In 1602-3 they sent her eleven bales of silk, valued at £2,500.
see ELIANOR de la PALMA
ELIZABETH SANDES, SONDES, SANDS, or SANDYS (1532-June 16, 1585)
Elizabeth Sandes was the daughter of Sir Anthony Sandes of Throwley, Kent (d.1575) and Joan Fyneux. By 1554, she was in the household of Elizabeth Tudor, accompanying her to the Tower of London (as one of the princess’s three gentlewomen) and going with her to Woodstock in May of that year. John Foxe in his Book of Martyrs, and others after him, wrongly state that Elizabeth Sandes was dismissed from the princess's service while Elizabeth Tudor was still in the Tower and give as the reason that she refused to attend mass. In fact, she was not sent away until June 5, 1554. On May 26, Queen Mary had written that Elizabeth Sandes was “a person of evil opinion, and not fit to remain about our . . . sister’s person” because of her religious beliefs. Elizabeth Sandes was replaced in the princess’s household by Elizabeth Marberye (Marbery), but “not without great mourning both of my lady’s grace and Sandes,” according to Sir Henry Bedingfield, who had charge of Elizabeth Tudor at that time. He characterized Elizabeth Sandes as having an "obstinate disposition." Elizabeth Sandes may have been sent first to an uncle in Clerkenwell (London) but soon was returned to her father in Kent. From there, in March 1555, she left England with her cousins Dorothy and William Stafford and settled in Geneva. In 1557, Elizabeth and Dorothy, now a widow, moved to Basel, where they remained until early in 1559. They returned to England by way of France and joined Queen Elizabeth's court, Elizabeth as a chamberer in August 1559. By 1562, Elizabeth Sandes was reportedly to marry Sir Maurice/Morris Berkeley of Bruton, Somerset (1508-August 11,1581). He served as standard bearer for Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Elizabeth. It is unclear when they wed. She is listed as unmarried among the queen's attendants until 1565. She remained at court until her death. Elizabeth and Sir Maurice had three children, Robert (d. before 1624), John, and Frances (sometimes called Margaret). Portrait: an effigy at Bruton, with that of her husband and his first wife (Catherine Blount, d. February 25, 1559), although Elizabeth is, in fact, buried at St. John’s Clerkenwell.
see JANE SONDES
ANNE SANDYS or
Anne Sandys or Sands was the daughter of Oliver Sandys of Shere, Surrey (d. November 7, 1515). By the end of the 1490s, she had married Richard Weston (c.1466-August 7, 1541), groom of the privy chamber to Henry VIII. At the same time, she was a gentlewoman to Elizabeth of York. Later she served in the household of Catherine of Aragon. Weston was governor of Guernsey from 1509 and took over that post in person in 1513. He was knighted in 1514. Anne is sometimes confused with her sister-in-law, Anne Weston, who was also in the household of Elizabeth of York and later (1511) married Sir Ralph Verney (d.1525). Some genealogies mistakenly state that Weston married Anne Verney rather than an Anne Sandys. Their children were Francis (1511-x. May 17, 1536), who was a royal page in 1515, Katherine (1514-1470), and Margaret. In 1521, Weston was given the manor of Sutton and there built Sutton Place, which King Henry VIII visited in 1533. Lady Weston was a correspondent of Honor Grenville, Lady Lisle and her letter, written from Sutton Place in November or December 1532 and sent to Soberton, some thirty miles away, recommends that Lady Lisle hire her former maidservant, a daughter of Sir Christopher More of Loseley (d. August 16, 1549), brought up in Lady Bourchier's household, who was turned out by Sir Richard because she fell in love with one of Weston's menservants, who had no prospects. The young man was also turned out. It is unclear whether Lady Lisle hired the young gentlewoman, who was staying with her uncle at the time of Lady Weston's letter.
see CECILY WILFORD
see DENISE CHAMPION
EDITH SANDYS (1475-August 22, 1529)
Edith Sandys, sometimes called Elizabeth, was the daughter of Sir William Sandys of the Vyne, Hampshire (c.1439-October 26, 1496) and his wife, Margaret. Some genealogies give Edith's mother's name as Margaret Cheney and others as Margaret Rawson. Edith was married twice. Her first husband, wed after 1489, was Ralph, Lord Neville (d. February 6, 1498), by whom she had a son who died, young, Cecily (b.c.1493), Isabel (d.1529+), and Ralph (February 21, 1497-April 24, 1550). The latter eventually succeeded his grandfather as earl of Westmorland. Before December 7, 1499, Edith married, as his second wife, Sir Thomas Darcy of Templehurst (c.1467-x. June 30, 1537), by whom she had a daughter, Elizabeth (d. before 1539). Edith was probably the Lady Neville who accompanied Margaret Tudor to Scotland in 1503, although there is some confusion because "Lady Darcy" met the princess at Berwick, where Darcy was captain, according to a note in the Plumpton Correspondence. Barbara J. Harris, in English Aristocratic Women, 1450-1550, tells us that Henry VII withheld Edith's jointure lands for over a year, only releasing them after Darcy supplied him with 200 men to help defend Berwick-upon-Tweed. Edith's daughter, Isabel Neville, became the second wife of Sir Robert Plumpton in 1505. A short time later, when Plumpton was desperate for money because of a feud over his inheritance, Edith arranged to forgive a debt Plumpton owed her husband. While a younger sister was with her in 1518, Edith negotiated a marriage for her and even put 100 marks toward the girl's dowry. She may have been the Lady Neville at Richmond with Princess Mary while most of the nobility of England were in France at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. Or that may have been her daughter-in-law, Catherine Stafford. Edith died at Stepney, Middlesex and was buried in the friary of the Observant Friars at Greenwich three days later.
see KATHERINE BRYDGES
see MARGARET BOURCHIER
MARGARET SANDYS (d.1558+?)
Margaret Sandys was the daughter of William Sandys, 1st baron Sandys of the Vyne (c.1470-December 4, 1540) and Margery Bray (d. March 1539). She married Thomas Essex of Lambourn, Berkshire (c.1495-August 29, 1558) and was the mother of Elizabeth, William (d. before 1558), Alice (d.1584), Thomas (1518-1575), Anne, Edmund, Margery, Humphrey, George, and Mary. Portrait: effigy on tomb in Lambourn Church.
see MARGERY BRAY
see ALICE VAUX
ANNE SAPCOTE (d. March 14, 1558/9)
Anne Sapcote was the daughter of Sir Guy Sapcote of Huntingdon, Chenies, Buckinghamshire and Thornhaugh, Bedfordshire and Margaert Wolston. She married three times, first to John Broughton of Toddington, Bedfordshire (d. January 24, 1518), by whom she had four children: John (d.1528), Anne (d. May 16, 1562), Katherine (d. April 23, 1535), and Elizabeth (d.1524). His will, dated July 9, 1517 and proved June 4, 1519, left each of his daughters £200 as a dowry, £300 each if one should die (as she did). For the entire will, see http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Her second husband was Sir Richard Jerningham (d.1524). Some accounts have him dying in 1524 and give them two sons, Edward and John, but according to his will, dated March 21, 1525 and proved July 24, 1526, he and Anne had no children. The will may be seen at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Anne then married Sir John Russell (c.1485-March 14, 1555/6), who was created earl of Bedford in 1550. They had one son, Francis, 2nd earl of Bedford (c.1527-July 28, 1585). When Anne's son, John Broughton, who was in the service of Cardinal Wolsey, died of the sweating sickness, his two surviving sisters inherited £700 in chattels and lands in Bedfordshire. The wardship of the younger, Katherine, had been granted to Wolsey. To please his wife, Russell attempted to buy it from him. At the same time, however, two other courtiers, Sir Thomas Cheney and Sir John Wallop, were attempting to win control of the Broughton fortune and were successful in getting the king to promise Anne Broughton to Sir Thomas and Katherine Broughton to Sir John. Tempers became heated over the matter and after a particularly virulent quarrel between Russell and Cheney, King Henry banished Cheney. In the end, however, with Queen Anne's backing, Anne Broughton passed into Cheney's control and eventually became his wife. Wolsey kept Katherine Broughton's wardship and the king paid Wallop £400 in compensation. On November 20, 1529, Agnes, dowager duchess of Norfolk, purchased it. Katherine's mother was devastated. Russell wrote to Lord Cromwell that Katherine was "all her joy in this world," and a family friend, Thomas Heneage, reported that Anne would be utterly undone if her suit to have Katherine failed. Nothing helped and Agnes married Katherine to one of her sons, William Howard, later Lord Howard of Effingham, in 1531. In the 1530s and 1540s, Anne was one of Princess Mary's attendants, but she was at Chenies on July 29, 1538 when she wrote to Lord Cromwell to ask the king to send Dr. Butts or "the Spanish physician" to her husband, who was sick with "a burning ague." She also asked for a few grains of a "powder" the king had given to the Lord Admiral. Whether he sent it or not, Russell was only just recovering the following October 2nd, at which time Anne, who was pregnant, was ill. There is no further mention of a child born in 1538/9. After her third husband's death, she took over the upbringing of Magdalen Dacre, whose mother had died in 1552. Anne had owned Thornhaugh in her own right when she married John Russell. Chenies, Buckinghamshire, which had passed from Agnes, Lady Cheyne to her niece, Anne Semark, and then to Anne Semark's granddaughter, Anne Sapcote, was the inheritance of Anne Sapcote's son, John Broughton but, after his death, it became the Russells' main residence. In 1556, Anne founded the chapel attached to the parish church of Chenies to commemorate herself and her third husband. For some unknown reason, the inscription gives her name as Elizabeth. In his will, written December 6, 1558 and proved April 25, 1559 (after Anne's own death), her son-in-law, Sir Thomas Cheyney of Shurland, left her £100 "in consideration of her great friendship and love borne toward me and mine." For her will, dated August 19, 1558 and proved March 21, 1559, see http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. In addition to family bequests, she left an annuity of £20 to her servants, Hugh and Sibyl Tebanian. Portrait: effigy at Chenies.
see ELIZABETH DYNHAM
see AGNES HUSSEY
ANN SAUNDERS (x. May 13,1573) (maiden name unknown)
It has been suggested that Ann Saunders was a member of the Newdigate family of Surrey and Middlesex, but she is only known by his surname in the accounts of her husband's murder. On March 25, 1573, George Saunders, a wealthy London merchant-tailor, was murdered near Shooter's Hill as he made his way from a friend's house in Woowich to St. Mary Cray. At the time of the murder, Ann was pregnant and gave birth a few days later to her fourth child. The murderer, George Browne, was in love with her and hoped to marry her and had killed her husband to clear the way. He claimed that Ann knew nothing of the plot to murder Saunders, and she maintained her innocence throughout her trial, but at the end, just before she was hanged as an accessory, she admitted her guilt. The most complete account of what is known about the case can be found in Chapter 6 of Strange, Inhuman Deaths: Murder in Tudor England by John Bellamy. Lena Cowen Orlin, in Locating Privacy in Tudor England, reveals that the four Saunders children—Walter, Thomas, Elizabeth, and George—became "orphans of the city" after their mother was executed, supported by the Court of Orphans. The share of the estate that should have gone to their mother as the widow of George Saunders—£600—was claimed by the sheriff, but Francis Saunders, George's brother, contested this. He appears to have been awarded the widow's third, which he then turned over to the children's estate. In his will, made in 1584, he left £54 to each of George and Ann's three children still living.
ANNE SAUNDERS (1512-1565)
Anne Saunders was the daughter of Lawrence Saunders of Harrington, Northamptonshire (1480-1545) and Alice Brokesby. Her first husband was named John Belford. After his death, she married Sir Bartholomew Tate of Laxton, Northamptonshire (d.1532), by whom she had two sons, Bartholomew (d. April 23, 1601) and Anthony. Her third marriage made her Lady Longueville, but there is some confusion over the identity of this husband. Most sources say he was Sir Thomas Longueville (d.1536) and that they had no children but Collins' Baronetage names him as Sir John Longueville of Wolvendon and gives them four sons: Thomas, Arthur (d.1556), John, and Richard. Yet another online source further confuses the issue by claiming that Bartholomew Tate divorced Anne and she then married Andrew Wadham, skipping the Longueville marriage entirely. By February 13, 1548, when "Lady Anne Longvyle, Andrew Wadham, her husband, and Bartholomew Tate, her son" purchased the former nunnery of Delapré (the Abbey of St. Mary de la Pré in Northamptonshire), she had married Wadham (d. 1550), a younger son of Nicholas Wadham of Merrifield, Somerset (d. 1541). Anne and Bartholomew later build a range of rooms on the site of the nunnery. She was buried on February 16, 1564/5.
see ANNE HAWTREY
ELIZABETH SAUNDERS (d.1607)
Elizabeth Saunders (Sanders/Sander) was the daughter of William Saunders of Charlwood, Surrey (d.1572) and Elizabeth Mynes. Elizabeth belonged to the Bridgettine order of nuns and was part of an English group, formerly of Syon, based at Mechelen in the Spanish Netherlands. Her sister Margaret (d.1576) was also a nun there. In 1578, Elizabeth and several other nuns, including Mary Champney (d.1580) and Anne Stapleton (d.1578), returned to England. Their reasons for returning are unclear and Elizabeth was imprisoned for her faith for part of the time she was there. By 1587, she was in Rouen. Letters written during this period are still extant. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Sander [Sanders, Saunders], Elizabeth."
see HELEN CHALONER
see JANE SPENCER
MARGARET SAUNDERS (1512-c.1563/4)
Margaret Saunders was the daughter of Nicholas Saunders of Charlwood, Surrey (d. August 29, 1553) and Alice Hungate. She married John Poyntz of Alderley, Gloucestershire (c.1487-November 29, 1544), as his second wife. The marriage settlement was dated May 1, 1544, but this appears to have been formalized some years after the actual marriage. He made his will on June 1, 1544, prior to leaving for the invasion of France, making Margaret one of his executors and leaving the care of his eldest son, Henry, age sixteen, to his stepmother. Henry was "not able, by reason of his weakness, to govern himself." Margaret's other young stepchildren were Matthew and Frideswide. Her own children were William (d.1601), Robert (c.1535-1584), Elizabeth, and Alice, all of whom were living at the time of their mother's death. A sketch of Poyntz was done by Hans Holbein, suggesting close ties to court, and it is possible that Margaret was the Mrs. Poyntz who was listed as mother of maids in Queen Mary's household in 1557. Her second husband was James Skinner of Reigate, Surrey (d. July 30, 1558). She was his third wife. He made his will July 28, 1558 and it was proved December 7, 1558. Margaret was appointed sole executor. Her will, dated September 20, 1563, was proved July 4, 1564 and can be found at Oxford-Shakespeare.com.
see MARGARET BOSTOCK
MARGERY or MARGARET
SAUNDERS (1545-June 1625)
Margery or Margaret Saunders was the daughter of Thomas Saunders of Uxbridge, Middlesex and Elizabeth Wolman. She was married three times, first on June 25, 1563 to Robert Wolman or Woolman (1538-1571), a London mercer. In 1572, she married John Leigh of Coldrey in Froyle, Hampshire (1534-January 19, 1576). They had a son, John Leigh (April 1575-January 6, 1612). In 1576, Margaret enclosed the cemetery in Windsor Street Green in Uxbridge. In 1577, she married Sir William Killigrew of Lothbury, London and Hanworth, Middlesex (1545-November 23, 1622), gentleman pensioner and later vice chamberlain to Elizabeth Tudor. Their children were Sir Robert (1578/9-May 1633), Catherine (1579-1641), and Elizabeth (1580-May 1626). The Killigrews were always in debt but they kept a large house in Lothbury. Margaret left a will written May 22, 1633 and proved June 14, 1525.
SABINE SAUNDERS (c.1521-1576+)
Sabine Saunders was the daughter of Thomas Saunders of Sibbertoft (d. March 1,1528) and Margaret Cave (d.1528+). In c.1541, she married John Johnson (c.1514-1590), who had been apprenticed to her uncle, Anthony Cave. Johnson was a draper and a stapler whose business was centered in Calais. Sabine’s letters from 1542-1552 have been preserved. She had at least six children: Charity (b.c.1542), Rachel (b. November 1544), Faith (b.1548), Evangelist (b.1550), Edward, and one son (b.1546) who died young. She lived primarily at Glapthorne Manor in Northamptonshire after 1544, but when her husband fell ill of an ague in Calais in November 1546, she traveled there to nurse him and bring him home to recover more fully. The Johnsons’ business went into bankruptcy in 1553 and in 1555 John Johnson was committed to the Fleet for debt. He owed £8000. He was not released until 1557. Sabine was allowed to remain at Glapthorne with their children but after his release there was no money to support the family. With the help of William Cecil, Johnson obtained a post as a secretary to Lord Paget. This lasted until 1561 and during that time the family shared a house in Lombard Street with John’s widowed sister-in-law, Maria (née Warner, married first to Otwell Johnson, who died in 1551, and then to Matthew Colclough.) In 1562, John and Sabine moved into the parsonage at West Wickham, Kent, renting it and the accompanying farm for £8 a year. Later they moved back to London. Sabine seems to have survived her husband, although the exact date of her death is not known. Biography: Barbara Winchester’s Tudor Family Portrait (1955); Jennifer Ann Rowley-Williams, chapter eight of her unpublished PhD dissertation, Image and Reality: the Lives of Aristocratic Women in Early Tudor England (1998).
see ANNE DASTON
ANNE SAVAGE (1506-October 1564)
Anne Savage was the daughter of Sir John Savage of Clifton and Rocksavage, Cheshire (1478-March 2, 1527) and Anne Bostock (b.1479). Anne's descripton at TudorPlace.com.ar is a woman "of middling stature, with a comely brown complexion, and much tender-hearted with her children." She was at court and apparently in the household of Anne Boleyn before Anne Boleyn was queen. She was one of only four or five people to witness Anne Boleyn's marriage to Henry VIII on January 25, 1533 and was Anne Boleyn's trainbearer. Others known to have been present were Thomas Heneage, Henry Norris, and William Brereton. Brereton was the second husband of Anne Savage's widowed sister-in-law, Elizabeth Somerset. Both Brereton and Norris were later executed as Anne Boleyn's lovers. Anne Savage did not remain long at the new queen's court. In April 1533, she married Thomas, 6th Baron Berkeley (1505-September 22, 1534), known as "the Hopeful." They had a daughter, Elizabeth (1534-September 1, 1582) and nine weeks after her husband's death, Anne gave birth to his son and heir, Thomas, 7th Baron Berkeley (November 26, 1534-November 26, 1613). Lady Berkeley was an avid letter writer, and was written about as well. A number of these missives are still extant, including one to Lord Cromwell on May 1, 1535 to complain about the Court of Wards, which opposed the release of her jointure. A letter from John Barlow, dean of Westbury College, to Lord Cromwell, also in 1535, complains about Lady Berkeley's interference in his attempt to prosecute a number of men who were caught playing tennis "in service time" (in other words, when they should have been in church). The incident occurred near where she was living in Yate, Gloucestershire and she actively rallied opposition to Barlow's charges. Barlow had earlier had a run in with Lady Berkeley over some religious books found in her house, but since both Catholic and radical Protestant texts were equally frowned upon at this time, it is difficult to say what Lady Berkeley's beliefs might have been. She was also at odds with her brother-in-law, Maurice Berkeley, who might have inherited all had she not given birth to a posthumous son. At one point during the late 1530s, she served on a commission to look into disturbances in one of her parks. According to Barbara J. Harris's "Women and Politics in Early Tudor England," she "sat with the panel when it selected a jury, heard evidence, and found the accused, including two of her brothers-in-law, Sir Nicholas Poyntz and Maurice Berkeley, guilty of riot and other misdemeanors." (Poyntz was married to her late husband's sister). In 1536, Edward Sutton wished to marry her. Cecily, Lady Dudley, Dorothy, Lady Mountjoy, and Thomas Wriothesley all petitioned the king and Lord Cromwell on Sutton's behalf but a widow could refuse to remarry and Anne did, writing on January 6 from Yate that "my stomach cannot lean there, neither as yet to any marriage." Writing to Wriothesley from the house of Lady Montague, his aunt, in Dorset, Sutton told his side of the story. "She entertained me after the most loving sort at my first coming to her . . . when she was in her chamber sewing, she would suffer me to lie in her lap, with many other familiar fashions as I could desire . . . but at my coming with the king's letters, I was nothing so well welcomed." The Suttons were poverty-stricken, but as Lady Berkeley never did take a second husband, that may not have been the reason she rejected him. She is said to have served as a Justice of the Peace, but there is no hard evidence of this other than the memoir of a judge, writing in 1632 and recalling a story his mother told him about a "Lady Bartlet," who was a J.P. under Queen Mary. Lady Berkeley did manage the family estates until her death at Callowdon (or Calloughdown), Gloucestershire. Portraits: Anne Savage is NOT the subject of the Holbein sketch at Windsor labeled "The Lady Barkley."
see CATHERINE DASTON
see DOROTHY FOUNTAIN
ELEANOR SAVAGE (1557-1604+)
Eleanor Savage was the daughter of Sir John Savage of Clifton and Rock Savage, Cheshire (c.1523-December 5, 1597) and Elizabeth Manners (c.1527-August 8, 1570). At some point after 1577, she married Sir Henry Bagnal/Bagenal of Newry, Co. Down and Norley Castle and Stoke, Staffordshire (1556-August 14, 1598). She had a marriage portion of £1000. They had three sons and four daughters, including Dudley, Eleanor, and Anne. Bagnal was Marshall of Ireland. After Hugh O’Neill, earl of Tyrone, eloped with his sister Mabel in 1591, the two men began a feud that only ended when Bagnal died, even though Mabel, who converted to Catholicism after her marriage, lived only two or three years longer. The estate Eleanor inherited from her husband was in such a confused state that she had to ask the Privy Council to sort it out. This took some time, as they did not name her as administrator until 1604. In the interim, she married Sir Sackville Trevor.
see ELEANOR COTGREAVE
see ELIZABETH DARCY; ELIZABETH MANNERS; ELIZABETH SOMERSET
see DOROTHY GROSVENOR; DOROTHY WENTWORTH
see ELIZABETH SOTEHILL
see FRANCES SONDES
see MARGARET DACRES
ELIZABETH SAXBY (d.1514+) (maiden name unknown)
Elizabeth Saxby was in the household of Elizabeth of York as "Mrs. Saxilby" and later was one of her daughter Mary's ladies. She received a salary of £5 in 1509 and on September 8, 1514, received an annuity of £20. By that time she was a widow. She was probably married to a member of the Saxby family of Northamptonshire. Sir Thomas Saxby was the father of William (d.1517), Margaret (1475-March 1531/2) and John (d.1544). His wife’s name does not seem to be known. Alison Weir, in Elizabeth of York, says Saxby was from an old Lincolnshire family.
see JOCOSA TRAPPES
ANNE SAY (1489-September 2, ????)
Anne Say was the daughter of Thomas Say of Lyston Hall, Essex (d. June 26, 1497) and his wife Joan. His heir was Anne's brother, William, age six, who died before 1510, leaving Anne and her sister Elizabeth as coheirs. Anne was said to be age twenty in 1509. The History of Parliament entry for Robert Hussey incorrectly states that she was the daughter of William Saye. In 1502, Anne was in the household of Elizabeth of York when she fell ill at Woodstock during a royal progress. The queen paid for her to be boarded out at Abingdon for several weeks, until she recovered. She was the first wife of Sir Robert Hussey of Linwood, Halton Holegate, and Old Lafford, Lincolnshire (d. May 28, 1546), younger brother of John, Lord Hussey. Their children were Thomas (d.1559), Margaret (d.1577), Anne (d. December 1, 1562), Mary (d.1573), Dorothy, and Elizabeth (d. 1553).
MARY SAY (1485-June 5, 1535+)
Mary Say was the daughter of Sir William Say of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire (1450- December 4, 1529) and Elizabeth Fray and the sister of Elizabeth Say, first wife of William Blount, 4th baron Mountjoy. Because of this connection, she is often called Mary Blount, William’s sister, by mistake. She married Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex (1471-March 30, 1540). The marriage settlement was dated March 12, 1497. Elizabeth married Mountjoy in 1499. By mid-1505, Essex and Mountjoy were engaged in litigation over the sisters’ dowries. The matter was not settled until 1515. Meanwhile, in 1501, Mary was in attendance on Catherine of Aragon after her marriage to Prince Arthur. In 1529, she was one of those to give testimony about whether or not Catherine’s marriage had been consummated. In 1506, the Essex household included both Charles Brandon, who was Essex’s master of horse, and Anne Browne, former maid of honor to Elizabeth of York and Brandon’s on again, off again wife. The household, in Knightriders Street, London and Stanstead Hall in Halstead, became a center for young courtiers including Brandon, Walter, Lord Ferrers, Richard, earl of Kent, Sir John Hussey, and Hussey’s eldest son, William. Mary was one of Catherine of Aragon's ladies in waiting in 1509. She had only one child, a daughter, Anne (1517-January 28, 1571).
KATHERINE SCALES (d.1505)
According to the monument in St. Swithin, Grinstead, Katherine was the daughter of Lord Scales and was a lady in waiting to both Elizabeth Woodville and her daughter, Elizabeth of York. Her first husband was Sir Thomas Grey and she was therefore known as Dame Katherine Grey. She may have been the Lady Grey in whose chamber at court a man was slain. Her second husband was Sir Richard Lewkenor of Brambletye. She was buried with both husbands. She was not, however, the daughter of Thomas Scales, 7th baron Scales. He had only one daughter, who married Anthony Woodville. Nor is she a daughter of Anthony Woodville, who later became Lord Scales and then Earl Rivers. She does not turn up in either Grey or Lewkenor genealogies, either. For another mysterious death in a lady's chamber at court see JANE BUSSY.
MARGARET SCARGILL (d. October 17, 1575)
Margaret Scargill was the daughter and coheir of Sir Robert Scargill of Thorpe Hall, Richmond, Yorkshire and Jane Coyers (d. January 5, 1546). She married Sir John Gascoigne of Cardington, Bedfordshire (c.1510-April 4, 1568) by 1531. They had two sons, George (1534/5-October 7, 1577) and John, and one daughter. In July 1543, she complained to the Privy Council about her husband's behavior and in 1556, Cardinal Pole ordered Gascoigne to end his adultery with a servant. He eventually had to settle an annuity on his ex-mistress. His will was probated June 1, 1568. Margaret's will was probated on March 10, 1576.
ELIZABETH SCOPEHAM (d.1554)
Elizabeth Scopeham was the daughter of John (or Thomas) Scopeham of London. By 1509, she had married William Holles of Stoke, Warwickshire (1471-October 20, 1542), merchant of the staple and Lord Mayor of London in 1539/40. Their children were John (d.yng), Thomas, Sir William (1509/10-January 26, 1591), Francis, Anne, and Joan. Elizabeth wrote her will on February 17, 1544. In it she endowed six almshouses in St. Helen's parish, London. Although the Oxford DNB and other sources say that she died on March 13, 1544, Barbara J. Harris's research has shown that she actually lived another ten years. One of the executors of her will, Sir Andrew Judde, was for a long time incorrectly credited with founding the almshouses.
see ALICE FOGGE
ELIZABETH SCOTT (1504-June 1557)
Elizabeth Scott was the daughter of John Scott of Camberwell, Surrey and Elizabeth Skinner. Her first husband was Roger Appleyard of Bracon Ash and Margate Hall, Stanfield, Norfolk (1506-July 8, 1528). Most genealogies list John as their eldest child, followed by a younger son, Philip, and two daughters, Frances and Anne or Anna. Philip married Mary Shelton, who was probably born around 1512, making her considerably his senior. The History of Parliament entry for John, however, gives his life dates as January 26, 1529-after 1574 and says that he was born nearly seven months after his father's death. It mentions the will left by Roger Appleyard, in which he provided for his as yet unborn child. Young John, as would be usual for the heir, became a ward of the crown and his wardship was sold first to Sir Thomas Wyatt (for £200), then to Sir Edward Boleyn, and finally to Robert Hogan of East Bradenham, Norfolk, who married the boy to his daughter, Elizabeth. Given these facts, either John was not the as yet unborn child in question and was born closer to 1526, or Philip has been placed in the wrong generation and was, perhaps, Roger's brother. Appleyard left his widowed the manor of Stanfield, Norfolk for life. In about 1530, Elizabeth married Sir John Robsart of Syderstone, Norfolk (d. June 8, 1554), by whom she had a daughter, Amye (June 7, 1532-September 8, 1560). The assumption is made in many older accounts that Elizabeth died by 1549, when her son John Appleyard was listed as holding Stanfield, but it now appears she lived much longer than that. Perhaps she settled the property on him early. John Robsart's will, proved at Norwich on July 5, 1554, was written October 6, 1537, and as such is no help with determining when she died, but it does leave Elizabeth three manors—Syderstone and Newton in Norfolk and Bostentim in Suffolk—for life, with reversion to their daughter Amye and her heirs, and names Elizabeth as his executor, and it seems unlikely that he would not make a new will if his wife died five years before he did. In addition, Syderstone was not granted to Amye and her husband until 1557. How much Elizabeth was involved in the lives of any of her children is unclear, but the marriage of Amye Robsart to Robert Dudley must certainly have affected her. During the latter part of the reign of Edward VI, Amye's father-in-law, John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, was the most powerful man in the kingdom. When Edward died and Mary Tudor became queen, Northumberland was executed and Lord Robert was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Elizabeth did not live to see the resurrection of his fortunes under Queen Elizabeth.
see ELIZABETH BAKER; ELIZABETH BELKNAP; ELIZABETH STAFFORD
ISABEL SCOTT (1459-August 15, 1528)
Isabel (sometimes called Elizabeth) Scott was the daughter of Sir John Scott of Scot's Hall, Smeeth, Kent (1423-October 17, 1485) and Agnes Beaufitz (d. March 25, 1486/7). She married Sir Edward Poynings of Westenhanger, Kent (1459-October 22, 1521) c.1480. They had one son, John, who predeceased them. Elizabeth's marriage must have been interesting. Her husband had seven illegitimate children, three sons and four daughters, by four mistresses. The last of these, Rose Whetehill, appears to have traveled with him when he was on diplomatic missions abroad, since one of her children was born in Ghent. Poynings also acquired the wardships of three boys, Henry Pympe and Humphrey Stafford in 1497 and Edward Fiennes, 9th Lord Clinton, the son of his illegitimate daughter Jane (Joan/Mary), in 1518. This last had to be purchased and cost him nearly £135. Poynings rebuilt the castle at Westenhanger. He was comptroller of the household from 1509-1519 (a post Isabel's father formerly held) and treasurer from 1519-21. In his will, written July 27, 1521 and proved December 19, 1521, he left Westenhanger to his oldest illegitimate son, Thomas Poynings (d.1545). Isabel received £80/year, the silver, household stuff, and 200 sheep. Portrait: brass labeled "Lady Elizabeth Powynges" in the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Brabourne, Kent.
see KATHERINE SMYTHE
see MARGARETE HETZEL
MARGARET SCOTT (c.1453-January 29, 1513/14)
Margaret Scott was the daughter of Sir John Scott, Marshall of Calais (1423-October 17, 1485) and Agnes Beaufitz (d. March 25, 1487). She married Sir Edmund Bedingfield (1443-1496) in about 1478 as his second wife. Their children were Sir Thomas (c.1479-1558), Alice, Robert, Sir Edmund (c.1483-1553), Agnes, Peter, Sir John, Elizabeth, and Margaret. Sir Edmund moved the family seat to Oxborough, Norfolk, where Margaret built a chapel to his memory in the parish church.
see ANNE HARLING
see CATHERINE CLIFFORD
see ELEANOR WASHBOURNE; ELEANOR WINDSOR
see ELIZABETH GREYSTOKE; ELIZABETH NEVILLE
ELIZABETH SCROPE (d. June 26, 1537)
Elizabeth Scrope was the daughter of Sir Richard Scrope (d.1485) and Eleanor Washbourne (d.1505/6). She married first, on April 24, 1486 at Westminster, William, 2nd viscount Beaumont (d. December 19, 1507). He lost his reason in 1487 and was placed in the care of John de Vere, 13th earl of Oxford at Wivenhoe, Essex until his death. In 1508, Elizabeth married Oxford (September 8, 1442-March 10, 1513). She was at court as one of Catherine of Aragon’s ladies in 1509. In his will, Oxford left Elizabeth "all manner of apparel to her person," silk cloth, and "chains, rings, girdles, devices, beads, brooches, ouches and precious stones." In 1520, she attended the Field of Cloth of Gold. In 1531, she bought the wardship of her nephew, John Audley (her sister Katherine's son by Richard Audley of Swaffham, Norfolk). She wrote her will on May 30, 1537 and it was proved on November 6, 1537. She was buried at Wivenhoe with her first husband. Portrait: brass at Wivenhoe.
ELIZABETH SCROPE (d.1544)
Elizabeth Scrope was one of the four daughters and co-heiresses of Robert Scrope of Hambledon, Buckinghamshire (1446-August 25, 1500) and Katherine Zouche. Her sisters were Agnes (m. Thomas Redmayn/Redman), Margaret (a nun at Barking), and Anne. Elizabeth married c.1500 Sir John Peche/Pechey/Pechie/Peach/Peachey/Percehay of Lullingstone Castle, Kent (1473-1522), who was the first lieutenant of the Gentlemen Pensioners in 1509 and a champion in the lists, bearing a standard of tawny with the crest of a lion’s head crowned with ermine and the words “in everything.” Elizabeth was in the households of both Elizabeth of York and Catherine of Aragon and received a pension from Henry VIII. She provided a refuge at Lullingstone Castle for her cousin, Margaret Scrope, Countess of Suffolk (d.1515), during Margaret’s final years. After her husband died, leaving her life interest in most of his properties, she settled an annuity on Percival Hart, his nephew, who was to inherit after her death. She later revoked this annuity, after which (c.1535) Hart accused her of wasting his inheritance by selling items he was supposed to inherit. The matter went to arbitration by Lord Cromwell and Elizabeth was obliged to sign a bond to Hart. Childless, in a will made August 1, 1541 with a codicil May 27, 1544, she left her sister Agnes Redman plate, pewter, a bed, and other goods and made her co-executor. It was proved July 22, 1544. She also left bequests to her other two sisters. There are numerous bequests to friends and servants, as well. The will can be found at Oxford-Shakespeare.com.
JANE SCROPE (c.1478-1521+)
Jane Scrope was the daughter of Sir Richard Scrope (d.1485) and Eleanor Washbourne (d.1505/6). Her mother’s second husband was Sir John Wyndham of Felbrigg, Norfolk (x.1502). It is said that the poem "Philip Sparrow" by John Skelton (1505) was inspired by the story of Jane Scrope and the pet bird she trained while living with her widowed mother, Lady Wyndham, in the convent of St. Mary at Carrow, near Norwich. The poem is a mock dirge, Jane’s lament for her bird, killed by a cat. Jane went on to marry Thomas Brewes of Little Wenham, Suffolk (d.1514), by whom she had three children, Ursula (d.1598), a nun at Denny before the Dissolution, Sir John (December 15, 1512-February 13, 1585), and Giles of Denton, Norfolk (d.1558/9).
see MABEL DACRE
MARGARET SCROPE (d.1515)
Margaret Scrope was the daughter of Sir Richard Scrope (d.1485) and Eleanor Washbourne (d.1505/6). She married Edward de la Pole, earl of Suffolk (1472-1513). Suffolk fled the realm in 1499, returned and was pardoned, and left again in 1501, hoping to gain the throne for himself with foreign support. He was outlawed on December 26, 1502. In March 1506/7 he was returned to England as a prisoner. He was exempted from the general pardon of 1509 and eventually executed, but his wife was at court early in Henry VIII’s reign as a lady-in-waiting to Catherine of Aragon. She had one daughter, variously called Anne and Elizabeth, who became a nun at the Minories without Aldgate in London. King Henry paid 40 marks (£13 6s. 8d.) in April 1511 for "the profession of Edmund de la Pole's daughter." Margaret lived with her cousin, Elizabeth Scrope, Lady Peche, at Lullingstone Castle, Kent during the last years of her life. Margaret's will was proved May 15, 1515. She left several items, including a trussing bed and sheets, £4, and a kirtle of russet satin to her servant, Margery.
see MARGARET HOWARD
MARIA or MARY
SCROPE (1534-January 12,
Maria or Mary Scrope was the daughter of Sir John Scrope of Spennithorne, Yorkshire and Hambleden, Buckinghamshire (c.1496-November 1547) and his second wife, Phillis Rokeby (d. May 1576). She married Thomas More (August 8, 1531-August 19, 1606), grandson of the martyr, in 1553. Their first two children, Mary (1553-1630) and Anne (1555-1630), were born at Hambleden. They had six more daughters and five sons, including Margaret (b.1556), John (1557-1599), Jane (b.1562), Magdalen (1563-1566), Katherine (1564-1638), Thomas (1565-1625), Henry (1567-1597), Grace (b.1568), and Christopher Cresacre (July 3, 1572-March 26, 1649). Portraits: in versions of the More family portrait.
MARY SCROPE (d. August 15, 1548)
Mary Scrope was one of the nine daughters of Sir Richard Scrope of Upsall, Yorkshire (d.1485) and Eleanor Washbourne (d.1505/6). Two of her older sisters were married to earls, Elizabeth, countess of Oxford and Margaret, countess of Suffolk. She was left a third part of £1000 for her dowry by her stepfather, Sir John Wyndham (d.1502). Mary married first, c.1509, Sir Edward Jerningham of Somerleyton, Suffolk (d.1515), by whom she had four sons and one daughter, Sir Henry (1509-1571), Ferdinand, Edward, Edmund, and Elizabeth. Her will mentions a daughter named Margaret and does not mention an Elizabeth, presenting me with a small mystery yet to be solved. In between lying-ins, she had an active career at court from 1509-1527 as one of Catherine of Aragon’s ladies. On June 26, 1510, she received the gift of tawny velvet for a gown. Her husband was the queen’s cupbearer and her son Henry was a carver to Princess Mary. Edmund became a gentleman of the bedchamber to Henry VIII and Elizabeth was one of Queen Jane’s maids of honor. See the entry for Anne Jerningham for an incident involving the newly widowed Lady Jerningham in 1517. Mary Scrope’s second husband, to whom she was married by the beginning of 1532, was Sir William Kingston (by 1476-September 4, 1540), constable of the Tower from 1524 until his death. Although Mary Kingston was implicated in the affair of the Nun of Kent in 1533, she took part in Anne Boleyn’s coronation. She was ill at Wanstead in June 1534. During the imprisonment of Anne Boleyn, Lady Kingston was called upon to hear Anne’s apology to Mary Tudor and deliver it to the king’s daughter after Anne’s execution. Lady Kingston carried Mary Tudor’s train at the christening of Prince Edward, rode in the funeral cortege of Queen Jane, and was listed as one of the thirty ladies appointed as “ordinary waiters” upon Anne of Cleves in 1539. According to some accounts, she served the first four of Henry VIII's wives and also spent some time in the household of Princess Mary. David Loades, in his biography of Mary Tudor, says she was in charge of a joint household for Mary and Elizabeth from March 1538 until April 1539. In her will she left her daughter Lady Anne Grey a goblet of silver and gilt with a cover and a ring with a ruby. She was particularly generous to her servant, Margaret Harris, leaving her gowns and other clothing, bedding, and even a tenement in Leyton, Essex. She added a codicil to revoke to revoke the bed of crimson velvet and cloth of gold panes she’d given to Sir Anthony Kingson (her stepson) and left it instead to Mary Jerningham, daughter of her son Henry. She asked to be buried at Painswick, Gloucestershire with her second husband, but her memorial brass, dated 1557, is at Low Leyton, Essex, where she was apparently buried on September 4, 1548. Portrait: a possible portrait has been located in a private collection. More information to come.
see PHILADELPHIA CAREY
JANE SCUDAMORE (d. 1579+)
Jane Scudamore was the daughter of John Scudamore of Holme Lacy (c.1486-September 25, 1571) and Sybil Vaughan (d.1559). She married first, c.1543, John Warnecombe of Lugwardine and Hereford (c.1517-September 24, 1552), who was mayor of Hereford in 1548-9. He made his will on September 22, 1552 and it was proved on December 2, 1552. His principal heir was their daughter Joan or Jane, age eight in 1552, who became a ward of the Crown. To his wife, Warnecombe left two parts of the manor of Lugwardine for life on the condition that she not remarry without the permission of her father, her brother-in-law, and Ward's uncle, Thomas Bromwell. This provision was later declared illegal and Jane was charged with trespass. She was pardoned and licensed to enter in February 1553 after paying a fine of £22. In 1554 (marriage settlement dated November 12), Jane married William Devereux of Merevale, Warwickshire (d. September 28, 1579), a younger son of the 3rd baron Ferrers of Chartley. They had two daughters, Barbara and Margaret. A variety of life dates are given online for these two girls, most of them unlikely, but Barbara was still living in 1618. Devereux left a will, proved on November 2, 1579, appointing his wife as one of his executors. Before his death, he settled estates on his daughters and Merevale went to Jane for her lifetime, after which it reverted to Lord Ferrers of Chartley (Viscount Hereford).
see MARY SHELTON; MARY THROCKMORTON
see SYBIL VAUGHAN
see BRIDGET MALTE
MARGARET SCUTT or
SKUTT (July 1537?-1592/3)
Margaret Scutt was the daughter of John Scutt (before 1498-1557), a gentleman who had been one of the royal tailors from 1519-1547, making clothing for all six of Henry VIII’s wives and also for private clients like Honor Grenville, Lady Lisle. He was master of the Merchant Taylors Company in 1536. Scutt's first wife, whose name is unknown, died in July 1537. Some sources give Margaret's age as eighteen in 1557. I think it likely that she was a little older, and it is possible that her mother died giving birth to her. If she was, in fact, born in 1539, then Scutt married three times because his wife by 1545 was Bridget Malte (d. November 30,1557), younger daughter of the king's tailor, John Malte, and she was not Margaret's mother. Bridget has been described as “a verye lustye yonge woman.” She and Scutt had a son, Anthony (1545-January 7,1588) and, according to John Malte's 1546 will, Anthony had a brother, Edward Scutt, but he is not identified as Bridget's child. Malte left Anthony the parsonage at Woolstone, Berkshire and Bridget the manor of Uffington, Berkshire. John Scutt was granted arms on November 12, 1546. After the death of Henry VIII he retired to the manor of Stanton Drew, Somerset, where he was the tenant of Sir John St. Loe. The next part of the story comes primarily from Mary S. Lovell's Bess of Hardwick. Scutt had a reputation for mistreating his wife and when he suddenly died, there were whispers of poison. The whispers grew louder when Bridget remarried a fortnight after her husband’s death, taking as her second husband Edward St. Loe (c.1520-1578), one of Sir John’s sons. Before Edward married her, he had arranged for his brother, Sir William St. Loe, to purchase the wardship of Anthony Scutt. He’d also asked William not to agree to their father’s suggestion that he (William) marry Margaret Scutt. Later it came out that Bridget was three months pregnant with St. Loe’s child at the time of the marriage. Two months after the marriage, she was dead. Six months after that, Edward St. Loe married his stepdaughter by marriage, Margaret Scutt. The marriage was long and apparently happy, but early on there were difficulties that grew out of St. Loe’s jealousy of his older brother Sir William. In 1560, Edward and Margaret moved into Sutton Court at Chew, Somerset, one of Sir William’s properties, where Edward filled the post of steward. Edward, however, thought the property should have been his outright. In early 1561, his sister-in-law, Elizabeth Hardwick St.Loe, fell ill shortly after a visit from Edward and his mother. A letter from Lady St. Loe indicates that even she suspected her younger son of poisoning Bess and attempting to poison Sir William. Although others, including a cousin, also named Elizabeth St. Loe, were arrested and charged, Edward was not. NOTE: Elizabeth St. Loe, the cousin, was put in the Tower at that time, which has caused considerable confusion with Elizabeth (Bess of Hardwick) St. Loe, who was not. Bess was questioned at about this time as to what she knew about Lady Catherine Grey's elopement and when she knew it but she was not imprisoned. Returning to Edward and Margaret St. Loe, they next appear in a case in civil court. Edward claimed that his father, who had died in December 1558, had meant Sutton Court to be left to Edward's wife and he accused Bess of Hardwick of bewitching William into marriage. Countercharges from William concerned the condition of Sutton Court. In the end, Edward and Margaret remained in residence, playing rent to William and Bess, but a portion of the rents from the estate were to be returned to Edward by William as income. Shortly thereafter, Sir William took the precaution of making a will that left everything he owned to Bess, so that Edward would not inherit even if William and Bess remained childless. This turned out to be a wise precaution. William fell ill and died unexpectedly early in 1565. Edward was with him at the time. After William's death, Edward produced a document that ceded Sutton Court to Edward and Margaret. Again there was a suspicion of poison but no proof and therefore no charges were brought. The matter of who owned Sutton Court, however, went before a judge. The ruling, in 1567, granted Margaret a lifetime interest in Sutton Court, with the property to revert to Bess on Margaret’s death. As for Edward, he had been posted to Ireland while the matter was being settled and remained there until 1568, when he abandoned his post after an accidental explosion in Londonderry which caused a great fire. Shortly after Bess of Hardwick's fourth marriage in early 1568 (to the earl of Shrewsbury), she purchased Margaret’s life interest in Sutton Court for £500. Margaret and Edward then moved to the manor of Knighton in Broad Chalke, Wiltshire, where they seem to have led a respectable existence. Margaret may have been the Margaret Sketuse or Sketts listed as a hoodmaker in royal accounts from 1583-93, although Janet Arnold in Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlock'dsuggests that Sketuze was the married name of a Margaret Barney, listed as a hoodmaker in 1580. Margaret and Edward appear to have had a son, John, and two daughters, Ann and Margaret (d.1591). Through this Margaret, who married Richard Stephens (d.1599), Queen Elizabeth II is a direct descendant of Margaret Scutt and Edward St. Loe. Margaret wrote her will on August 11, 1592 and it was proved February 2, 1592/3. Among other bequests, she left one of her grandsons a ring with her father's arms engraved on it.
CATHERINE SEBORNE (d. October 2, 1625)
Catherine Seborne was the daughter of John Seborne of Sutton St. Michael, Hereford and Sibil Monington. She married Christopher Roper, 2nd baron Teynham (c.1561-April 16, 1622) and was the mother of John, 3rd baron (c.1591-February 27, 1627/8), Margaret, and Mary. Portrait: sculpture beside the effigy of her husband, Lynsted Church, Kent.
see DOROTHY BONHAM
see ST. LEGER
MARY SETON (c.1541-1615+)
Mary Seton was the daughter of George, 4th baron Seton (d.1549) and Marie Pierres or Pieris, one of Marie of Guise’s French ladies-in-waiting. Her date of birth is usually given as 1548, but since she is said to have traveled to France with Mary Queen of Scots as one of the “four maries” in 1548, this is unlikely. Upon their arrival, King Henri sent the girls (the others were Mary Beaton, Mary Fleming, and Mary Livingston) to Poissy to be educated, supervised by the abbess, Françoise de Vieuxpont, after which they took up their duties as maids of honor to the Scots queen at the French court. They returned with her to Scotland in September 1561. Mary Seton was the tallest of the Queen’s Marys and so was able to disguise herself as the queen while Mary escaped from Loch Leven. She later joined the Scots queen at Carlisle to share her captivity in England. In 1568 she reportedly had a maid of her own named Janet Spittell and a manservant named John Dumfries. She served as Mary's hairdresser and was, according to Sir Francis Knollys, the finest busker of a woman's head and hair in any country. Rosalind Marshall, in Queen Mary's Women, gives the most complete account of Mary Seton's life, including her courtship by two different men. With the first, Christopher Norton, Mary may have been plotting the queen’s escape from England but if so the plot came to nothing when Norton was charged with treason after the Rebellion of the Northern Earls in 1569 and executed. The second suitor was Andrew Beaton, who took over as master of the queen's household in 1572. Mary put him off, at one point claiming his lineage was unequal to hers and at another that she had taken a vow of chastity. The queen's letter (January 12, 1577) on the subject is dismissive of this excuse and Mary was eventually persuaded that, if her vow could be overturned, she would marry Beaton. Before this could happen, however, Beaton died of smallpox (on November 5, 1577). Meanwhile, in August 1570, Mary's mother and brother Robert had been arrested in Scotland over a letter to the queen that had been prompted by reports of Mary Seton's illness. They were released, possibly at the urging of Queen Elizabeth, after promising not to try to write to the Queen of Scots again. By 1581, Mary was talking of retiring due to ill health and she finally withdrew from the queen's service in September 1583. She traveled to France with another maid of honor, Marie Courcelles, and entered the convent of St Pierre aux Dames in Rheims, where the abbess was a sister of Marie of Guise. She lived there for the rest of her life although it does not seem that she took vows as a nun. She made a will in 1602, during another bout of illness, but revoked it on June 7, 1602 after she recovered. At that time, she apparently had some personal wealth, but by 1613, she was reported to be living on the charity of the abbess. A number of her letters are extant, the last one dated April 6, 1615. Biography: Oxford DNB in “Queen’s Maries.” Portrait: represented in a painting of all four Marys on wooden panels at Mary Queen of Scot's house, Jedburgh.
JOAN SEWELL (d. July 2, 1532)
Joan or Johanna Sewell became a Bridgettine nun at Syon, Isleworth in 1500. She was given a copy of Hilton's Scale of Perfection by a Carthusian monk, James Grenehalgh, who was at Sheen, just across the river. On a blank page at the end, he drew a diagram, perhaps meant to represent a plan of Syon. Her name is inscribed at the center, surrounded by the names of the four saints associated with the house—St. Bridget, the Virgin Mary, St. Augustine, and St. Saviour. This book and others annotated by Grenehalgh for Joan, supposedly to enhance her spiritual training, were looked upon with disfavor by his superiors. In 1507 or 1508, he was removed to the Charterhouse in Coventry. Joan may also have been disciplined.
see ANNE SACKVILLE; ANNE STANHOPE
ANNE SEYMOUR (1538-February 1587/88)
Anne Seymour was the oldest daughter of Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset (1502-x January 22,1552) and Anne Stanhope (c.1510-April 15,1587) and may have been born as early as 1536 with her sister Margaret born in 1537. Together with her sisters, Margaret and Jane, she was educated in a manner similar to the way Sir Thomas More’s daughters were taught. Thomas Cranmer was their tutor for three years, followed by Nicholas Denisot, who encouraged them to write a poem in honor of his former mistress, the queen of Navarre. When he returned to France, he took the result wit him and it was published in 1550 as “Annae, Margaritae, Janae, Sonorum Virginum, heroidum Anglasum in mortem Margaritae Valesiae Navarrouim Reginae Hedadistichon.” The work inspired French poets to like efforts. Anne was also known for her religious studies and corresponded with John Calvin. On June 3,1550 she was married to John Dudley, earl of Warwick (by 1528-October 21,1554), son of the duke of Northumberland, in an effort to reconcile their fathers, but Anne’s father was executed by Northumberland in 1552. She suffered a physical collapse after the execution. Northumberland himself was executed in 1553. Anne’s husband was in the Tower and condemned to death at the same time and died ten days after his release the following year. On April 29, 1555, Anne married Sir Edward Unton or Umpton of Wadley, near Faringdon, Berkshire (d. September 16, 1582) and by him had seven children, Edward (d.1589), Sir Henry (1557-1596), Cecily (d. June 16, 1618), Francis, Anne, and two others who died young. Queen Elizabeth visited the Unton manor of Langley in Oxfordshire on her summer progresses in 1572, 1574, and 1575, but Anne may not have been there to welcome her. She lived mostly at Wadley and throughout the period from 1566 to 1588 was said to suffer periodic bouts of insanity. In October 1582, she was officially declared of unsound mind, "a lunatic enjoying lucid intervals," and her custody was granted to her son Edward. On the other hand, the sermon preached at her funeral mourned her as a “noble lady, a faithful wife, a virtuous woman, and a godly widow.” Biography: Anne is included in the Oxford DNB entry for her sister, under "Seymour, Lady Jane." Portraits: The memorial portrait of the life of Sir Henry Unton shows Anne in the scene depicting his birth in 1557.
DOROTHY SEYMOUR (d.1572)
Dorothy Seymour was the youngest daughter of Sir John Seymour of Wolf Hall/Wulfhall, Wiltshire (c.1474-December 21, 1536) and Margery Wentworth (c.1478-October 18, 1550) and the sister of Queen Jane Seymour. By 1536, she had married Clement Smith/Smyth of Little Baddow, Essex (d. August 26, 1552). Smith, a Catholic, was knighted in 1546 but he spent a few weeks in the Fleet for hearing mass in April of 1550, in spite of the fact that his nephew was the king. In his will, he left nothing to his wife because the king had already given her "fair lands which with the poor jointure and other such lands as I have put her in jointly with me for the term of her life . . . and her dowry be double as much as all my lands, manors, and tenements." Dorothy was also granted a pension of 100 marks a year to cover the expenses of raising her niece, the Lord Protector's youngest daughter, Elizabeth (1550-June 3, 1602). By Smith, Dorothy had three sons and four daughters including Sir John. By November 1553, she had remarried, taking as her second husband Thomas Leventhorpe of Sawbridgeworth and Albury Hall, Hertfordshire (d. June 8, 1588).
ELIZABETH SEYMOUR (1511-June 1563)
Elizabeth Seymour was the daughter of Sir John Seymour (c.1474-December 21, 1536) and Margery Wentworth (c.1478-October 18, 1550) and the younger sister of Queen Jane Seymour. By 1530, she was married to Sir Anthony Ughtred of Kexby (1498-December 20, 1534). Some sources say that Lady Ughtred was at court when Anne Boleyn was queen, but Jane Seymour's biographer, Elizabeth Norton, contradicts this, saying that Elizabeth lived primarily in the north, away from both court and family. The January 1534 list of New Years' gifts to the king includes one from Lady Oughtrede. She was courted, but not assiduously, by Sir Arthur Darcy in 1536. In a letter to her in that year, he predicted that some southern lord would make her forget the north. In March of 1537, after her sister was married to Henry VIII, the widowed Elizabeth, living in poverty in York, wrote to Lord Cromwell to ask for the grant of some of the goods from one of the dissolved monasteries. Instead, Cromwell proposed that she marry his son, Gregory (c.1514-July 4,1551). Elizabeth traveled south, residing at Leeds Castle, Kent, at Cromwell’s expense until they wed on August 3, 1537. They had five children: Henry (c.1538-November 20, 1593), Frances (c.1544-February 7, 1561/2), Catherine, Edward, and Thomas (c.1540-c.1611). In the spring of 1538, Elizabeth and her husband were living at Lewes in Sussex, but soon returned to Leeds Castle, where their first two sons were born. In late 1539, Gregory was in Calais, awaiting the arrival of Anne of Cleves, when he wrote a letter to his wife in which he signs himself "your loving bedfellow." Lord Cromwell's fall from power in 1540 was a setback for the family, but Gregory was not implicated and he was restored as Lord Cromwell of Oakham later that same year. In 1551, when Elizabeth's brother, Edward Seymour, then Lord Protector, was arrested, Elizabeth was given charge of his four younger daughters. Later that year, Gregory Cromwell died of the sweat and Elizabeth was also ill, at Launde Abbey in Leicestershire, but recovered. She gave birth to her last child after her husband's death. On October 25, 1552, she wrote to William Cecil in the hope that she could be relieved of her responsibility for the girls, who did not take her advice "in such good part as my good meaning was, nor according to my expectation in them." In 1557, she took a third husband, John Paulet, Lord St. John (1517-1576), son and heir of the marquis of Winchester. Her son Henry married her new husband's daughter Mary. She was living March 13, 1561/2 and died before June 9, 1563. She was buried at Basing, Hampshire. Portrait: c.1538 by Hans Holbein (previously identified as "Catherine Howard" and then called "A Lady of the Cromwell Family").
ELIZABETH SEYMOUR (1551-June 3, 1602)
Elizabeth Seymour was the youngest child of Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset (1502-x. January 22, 1552) and Anne Stanhope (1510-April 16, 1587). She was sent to her aunt, Dorothy Seymour Smith, after her father's execution and 100 marks/year was provided for her maintenance. Later she was raised by her mother and stepfather in the country. She had little to do with the court. In 1577, she married Sir Richard Knightley of Fawsley, Northamptonshire (1534-September 1, 1615), as his second wife. Their children were Anne (1578-1584), Seymour (May 15, 1580-July 1640), Dudley (June 27, 1582-April 11, 1602), Anne, John (August 1, 1585-1615), Nathaniel, Robert (September 15, 1588-1643), Francis (January 19, 1590-February 1619), and Ferdinando. Portrait: tomb effigy in All Saints, Norton, Northamptonshire; possible portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger c. 1591 ("unknown lady" at the Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection).
see FRANCES HOWARD (two entries)
see HONORA ROGERS
JANE SEYMOUR (c.1508-October 24,1537)
Jane Seymour was the daughter of Sir John Seymour (c.1474-December 21,1536) and Margery Wentworth (c.1478-October 18,1550). She came to court as a maid of honor under Catherine of Aragon and also held this post after Anne Boleyn became queen. King Henry VIII married Jane following Queen Anne’s execution and she gave him the one thing he wanted most, a male heir, the future Edward VI (1537-1553). She died of complications from the birth. Biographies: Pamela M. Gross’s Jane, the Quene, Third Consort of Henry VIII; Elizabeth Norton's Jane Seymour: Henry VIII's True Love (2009); William Seymour’s Ordeal by Ambition (a group biography of Jane and her two brothers). Portraits: The original Hans Holbein the Younger painting is in the Hague, with his preliminary drawing in the collection at Windsor Castle, but there are many copies. She is also in the “family portrait” at Hampton Court.
JANE SEYMOUR (1541-March 20,1561)
Jane Seymour was the daughter of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset (1502-xJanuary 22, 1552) and Anne Stanhope (c.1510-April 16,1587). Like her sisters, Anne (see above) and Margaret, she was a scholar. She wrote poetry and a number of her letters are extant. At one time, there was talk of marrying her to her cousin, King Edward VI, but her father was removed from power and executed before he could carry out this plan. In 1551, there was also talk of a marriage for Jane to the earl of Derby's son, Lord Strange. In May 1552, she and her younger sisters were sent to Leicester under the care of their aunt, Lady Cromwell. Jane was at court as a maid of honor during the reign of Mary Tudor. She had to retire to the country to recover from an illness in the summer of 1558. She was taken to Hanworth, her mother's estate, in a horse-drawn litter and her close friend Lady Catherine Grey was allowed to go with her. In December 1560, when both were maids of honor to Queen Elizabeth, she assisted Lady Catherine to seecretly married Jane’s brother, Edward Seymour. When Jane fell ill again, early in 1561, she was excused from her duties and remained in her rooms at Whitehall, where she died. She was buried in St. Edmund’s Chapel, Westminster. Her brother placed a memorial tablet over her grave, probably in 1587. The inscription, now missing, "On the Death of Lady Jane Somerset," praised her "genius fam'd," her beauty, and her voice that "harmonious notes improv'd." Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Seymour, Lady Jane.”
see KATHERINE FILLOL; KATHERINE PARR
MARGARET SEYMOUR (c.1478-before June 1517)
Margaret Seymour was the daughter of John Seymour of Wolfhall, Wiltshire (c.1450-1491) and Elizabeth Darrell (c.1451-c.1478) and the aunt of Queen Jane Seymour. She was the second of the four wives of Sir Nicholas Wadham of Merrifield, Somerset (by 1472-March 5,1542) and the mother of Nicholas (d.1551) and Jane (c.1517-1551+). Sir Nicholas was Captain of the Isle of Wight from 1509-1520. While she and her husband lived there, Margaret founded a hospital for the infirm. Six of them are depicted with her on her monument. Portrait: effigy in St. Mary the Virgin, Carisbrook, Isle of Wight.
see MARGERY WENTWORTH
MARY SEYMOUR (d.1555+) (maiden name unknown)
Mary was married first to Robert Imber (d. November 7, 1512), a London mercer by whom she had two daughters. At the time of the inquisition post mortem for Imber, held on June 21, 1513, the eldest daughter, Katherine, was over fourteen and the younger girl, Alice, was more than twelve. Katherine inherited the corner tenement in St. Mary Magdalene, Milk Street in Cripplegate ward, valued at five marks per annum. From at least 1505, Imber had also been a tenant in All Hallows on the west side of Honey Lane. Widowed, Mary married Thomas Seymour or Semer of Saffron Walden, Essex (d. December 11, 1535), a London alderman from 1515-35, knighted in 1520, and Lord Mayor of London in 1526/7. He was a mercer, a merchant adventurer, and a merchant of the staple of Calais and in 1522 he was one of the three richest men in London (his house in London was assessed at a value of £3500 in goods). In 1515, Seymour was committed to ward by the court of aldermen for refusing to give up custody of one of his stepdaughters. Seymour and Mary had no children. His daughter and heir, Grace, who married Edward Elrington/Erlington, was illegitimate. Mary successfully supported Grace's claim when Seymour's nephew, another Thomas, contested the testament proved January 31, 1536. This involved lands that would be inherited after Mary's death, an estate that included Widdrington and two other manors in Essex, Hoxton in Middlesex (where Seymour lived the last few years of his life), a manor in Gloucestershire, and three manors in Lancashire. As a widow living in the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, Lady Seymour had numerous servants, including Elizabeth Barton, a widow who made her will in 1543 and left 12d. apiece to each of the other Seymour servants. In 1544, Lady Seymour gave a yellow and white altar cloth, curtains, and a chalice to the new church built by the Mercers. In 1546, she was sent dishes from the election banquet by the Mercers. This was done in hope of a generous bequest in her will. This will, made in 1555, requested that she be buried in the parish church of St. Leonard, Shorditch, where Seymour had been laid to rest.
MARY SEYMOUR (c.1547-1619/20)
Mary Seymour was the daughter of Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset (1502-x. January 22, 1552) and Anne Stanhope (1510-April 16, 1587). The story that her first husband was Francis Cosby of Ireland (1510-September 8, 1580) is not true. Cosby had married a woman named Elizabeth Palmer by November 23, 1563 and she survived him. Mary, meanwhile, in about 1575, married Sir Andrew Rogers of Bryanston, Dorset (d.c.1599). On September 4, 1582, Mary appealed to Lord Burghley, writing from Paul's Wharf, to intercede with her mother, who was not speaking to her. This may have been in connection with the furor over the entanglement of young Lord Beauchamp with Honora Rogers in the summer of 1581. They were claiming to be married and were being kept apart by the earl of Hertford, who was Beauchamp's father and Mary's brother (see HONORA ROGERS). In 1600, Mary sued for her jointure. In 1607, she married Sir Henry Peyton or Payton (d.1622) a soldier who was appointed a gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Prince Henry in 1610. In his will, written on April 11, 1618, he made specific provision so that Mary would not be burdened with his debts after his death. He did this "for the singular love of which I beare unto the Ladie Marie my wife." They do not appear to have had any children.
MARY SEYMOUR (August 30,1548-1550?)
Mary Seymour was the daughter of Kathryn Parr (d. September 5,1548), widow of King Henry VIII, and Thomas Seymour, baron Seymour of Sudeley (x.March 20,1549). Elizabeth Aglionby, formerly one of Kathryn Parr’s ladies, was her governess and looked after her, first at Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire, where she was born, then at her uncle’s residence, Syon House, and finally, after her father’s execution, at Grimsthorpe in Lincolnshire, where Catherine Willoughby, duchess of Suffolk, was her guardian. There Mary had, in addition to her governess, two maids and several other servants. Money for her care, however, was lacking. She had an income from the Court of Wards of just under £500 a year, but this income was not transferred from the duke of Somerset to the duchess of Suffolk. According to the duchess, Mary’s mother’s family, the Parrs, refused to take her. Mary Seymour was restored in blood on January 22, 1550, but after that disappears from the records. Stories persist that she lived longer than that. John Strype (1643-1737) seems to be the source later writers, including Edmund Lodge (1756-1839), used for the information that Mary died as a child. Lodge says she died at thirteen. This would be consistent with Mrs. Aglionby’s reappearance at court in 1562 as mother of maids under Queen Elizabeth, but that is hardly proof of anything. Agnes Strickland, however, writing in the late nineteenth century, states that Mary not only grew up, but married a man named Sir Edward Bushel and had a daughter by him. Unfortunately, she offers no documentation for this claim.
see MARY WOODHULL
see PHILIPPA TRAPPES
MARTHA SHACKLETON (1561-1604)
Martha Shackleton was married at fifteen to William Webb (1551-1604). According to the records left by Simon Forman, she had affairs with Sir Thomas Walsingham, Forman himself, and others. She had eight children by 1599, including one named Thomas. According to Forman, she was "very fair, of good stature, plump face, little mouth, kind and loving."
see ANNE WINWOOD
GRACE SHAKERLEY (d. August 1558)
Grace Shakerley was the daughter of Robert Shakerley of Little Longstone, Derbyshire (d. June 17, 1507+) and his second wife, Alice Bagshaw. She married first Francis Careless or Carless and second, c.1553 in a secret ceremony, Francis Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury (1500-September 24, 1560). It was a love match and he was apparently devastated by her death. In September 1553, she was at court while he was in the north. By June 15, 1554, she was in York when she was visited by her stepson, George Talbot, and his wife, Gertrude Manners. She writes to her husband to tell him that "the building at Sheffield Lodge goeth well forward."
see ANNE HATHAWAY
JUDITH SHAKESPEARE (January 1585-February 1662)
Judith Shakespeare was the daughter of William Shakespeare (April 1564-April 23, 1616) and Anne Hathaway (1556-August 8, 1623). There is little known about her early life, other than that her twin brother, Hamnet, died young. Germaine Greer, in Shakespeare’s Wife suggests that Judith was either apprenticed to Bess Quiney in 1602 or went to work for her as a nursemaid. In 1611, Judith witnessed a deed for Bess Quiney and her son Adrian. She signed with a squiggle that indicates she could not sign her own name. At thirty-one, on February 10, 1615, she married Thomas Quiney, who was twenty-seven. In March they had to answer to charges that they had wed without the proper license. Greer suggests that a marriage between the two might have been considered years earlier and that it did not take place sooner because the marriage settlement Shakespeare made for his older daughter, Susanna, had the effect of disinheriting Judith. Shakespeare’s will also deals oddly with Judith. Thomas Quiney ran a tavern next door to his mother’s house. Their children were Shakespeare (November 1616-May 1617), Richard (February 1618-February 1639), and Thomas (January 1620-January 1639).
see MARY ARDEN; MARY GODTHERIDG
SUSANNA SHAKESPEARE (May 1583-July 11, 1649)
Susanna Shakespeare was the daughter of William Shakespeare (April 1564-April 23, 1616) and Anne Hathaway (1556-August 8, 1623). We know that she could read and write, but not much else about her. In 1607 she married John Hall (d. November 25, 1636), a doctor. They had one daughter, Elizabeth (1608-February 17, 1670). In June 1613, for unknown reasons, a man named John Lane accused Susanna of adultery with Ralph Smith, a thirty-five year old haberdasher, and claimed she’d caught a venereal disease from Smith. Five weeks later, the Halls brought suit against Lane in the Consistory Court at Worcester. Lane was found guilty of libel and excommunicated. She inherited New Place in Stratford from her father and a house in London from her husband.
see ANNE PAGET
see GRACE FARRINGDON
GRACE SHARINGTON (1552-July 27, 1620)
Grace Sharington was the daughter of Sir Henry Sharington of Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire (d.1581) and Anne Paget (d.1607). She was educated by a Mrs. Hamblyn, her father’s niece and in 1567 married Sir Anthony Mildmay of Apethorpe, Northamptonshire (c.1549-September 2, 1617). They had one daughter, Mary (1582-1640). Grace kept a journal from 1570 until 1617, in which she recorded the events of her early life as well as the day-to-day activities of a puritan wife and mother and included extensive notes on home remedies. She is described as follows by Rachel Weigall in "An Elizabethan Gentlewoman," Quarterly Review, 215 (1911), pp. 119-138: small face, delicate features, grave brown eyes, thin lips, sad smile. Grace's motto was "The mind always employed in good things avoideth evil, pleaseth God, and promiseth a happy end." King James visited Apethorpe in April 1603 and returned often thereafter. He was drawn, it was said, by Grace's confectionary. Mildmay made his will on February 14, 1615, leaving his "well beloved wife" his "caroche" and coach horses, plate, jewels, household goods, and the cattle, nags, and geldings at Apethorpe and at Leistrop, Leicestershire. She erected an elaborate monument in his memory. Biography: Linda Pollack’s With Faith and Physic: The Life of a Tudor Gentlewoman, Lady Grace Mildmay 1552-1620; Oxford DNB entry under "Mildmay [née Sharington], Grace." Portrait: painted in 1613 and believed to come alive at night and go out to give sixpence to those in need; effigy on tomb at St. Leonard's Church, Apethorpe, Northamptonshire.
OLIVE SHARINGTON (d.1646)
Olive (sometimes called Anne) Sharington /Sherrington was the fourth daughter of Sir Henry Sharington of Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire (d.1581) and Anne Paget (d.1607). She married first, on September 13, 1574, John Talbot of Solway or Salwarp/Salwarpe, Worcestershire (1545-December 9, 1581). They had four children, John (c.1575-1581), Sherrington (1577-1642), Thomas, and Dorothy. As a widow, she lived at Lacock with her children. In 1583, she received a letter from Queen Elizabeth concerning the suitability of a second marriage to Sir Robert Stapleton of Wighill, Yorkshire (c.1547-1606), a widower with two sons and a daughter of his own. The History of Parliament entry for Stapleton gives the date of this recommendation as January 1579 and says that he hoped to gain over £1,200 a year from this marriage. It explains the delay before they wed as being due to a feud between Stapleton and Edwin Sandys, archbishop of York. They met by accident in the Bull in Doncaster, an inn owned by one Sysson, whose wife was a former servant of Sandys. During the night, the innkeeper discovered his wife in bed with the archbishop. Sandys claimed Stapleton, Sysson, and Mrs. Sysson had contrived the scene to discredit him and bribed Stapleton and Sysson to keep them quiet. After a time, Sandys revealed what had happened and the case ended up in Star Chamber, where Stapleton was found guilty and sentenced to three years in prison and a fine of £300. He was confined in the Tower of London and later in the Fleet and released sometime in 1584, after which he married Olive. They were the parents of Bryan, Edward, Olive, Ursula, and Grace. The eldest child was baptized in April 1585. Stapleton divided his time between Wiltshire, where Olive had property, London, Wales, and the Isle of Man.
URSULA SHARINGTON (d.1569)
Ursula Sharington was the daughter of Thomas Sharington of Sherrington, Derham, Norfolk (d.1527) and Catherine Pirton or Pyrton. Between 1524 and 1527, she married Francis Hall of Grantham, Lincolnshire (d.June 10, 1552; Magna Carta Ancestry says July 1553), who was not yet twenty years old. They either had a child right away or Ursula had a daughter from a previous marriage, because Hall refers to a married daughter in a letter of January 1539. Their other children were Mary (before 1532-1557+), Elizabeth (b.c.1534), Jane (November 1536-May 11, 1598), Arthur (November 1539-December 29, 1605), Henry, and Robert. According to the speculations of M. St. Clare Byrne in The Lisle Letters, the Halls lived with Francis's uncle, Sir Robert Wingfield, in Calais in 1533-4, and probably earlier. Wingfield left a considerable inheritance to Francis in 1538 and, in a smaller bequest, willed a milch cow to Ursula. The Halls remained in Calais, where Francis eventually became controller. Several of his letters are preserved, in which he frequently makes reference to his wife. In 1540, Honor Grenville, Lady Lisle, was put under house arrest in the custody of Francis Hall. At that time (June 5, 1540), a letter from the Earl of Sussex and Sir John Gage to Lord Cromwell characterizes Ursula as "a sober honest woman." In his will, dated July 20, 1551 and proved November 25, 1560, Francis asked that Ursula be given the wardship of their surviving son, Arthur, but it went instead to Sir William Cecil. He refers to "my three daughters," calling into question the earlier married daughter. He also left 100 marks to Dorothy Leighton, "whom I do use to call daughter," on her marriage. Ursula married second John Banaster or Bannaster of Calais and Beningbrough in Newton-upon-Ouse, Yorkshire (d.1556). She was buried at Grantham, Lincolnshire on July 5, 1569.
see MARGARET HARRISON
see ANNE BARLEE
see DOUGLAS HOWARD
ELEANOR SHEFFIELD (c.1538-1568+)
Eleanor Sheffield was the daughter of Edmund, 1st baron Sheffield (November 22,1521-July 3,1549) and Anne de Vere (c.1522-February 1571/2). She married Denzil Holles of Irby-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire (1536-April 12, 1590) and was the mother of William, John, 1st earl of Clare (May, 1564-October 4,1637), Frances, Jane and three other sons and two other daughters. According to Holles family tradition, Eleanor found a love letter from the earl of Leicester to her sister-in-law, Douglas Howard, Lady Sheffield, and revealed their affair to her brother. He, so the story goes, was on his way to London to divorce Douglas when he fell ill and died, poisoned, it was said, by Leicester. According to the History of Parliament, Holles “had an immoderate love of women ‘from which neither the virtue nor fertility of a noble wife could at all reclaim him.’”
ELIZABETH SHEFFIELD (d. November 1600)
Elizabeth Sheffield was the daughter of John, 2nd baron Sheffield (c.1538-December 10, 1568) and Douglas Howard (1542/3-December 1608). Her widowed mother was somewhat notorious at the English court as the paramour/wife of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. Elizabeth appears to have been at court, as well, since her wedding to Thomas Butler, 10th earl of Ormond and 3rd earl of Ossory (1532-November 22, 1614) took palce there on November 2, 1582, only two months after the death of his estranged first wife (see ELIZABETH BERKELEY). The "Countess of Ormond’s Galliard" was supposedly composed for her. It appeared in A banquet of daintie conceits (1588) by Anthony Munday. She had three children by Ormond, James (1583-1590), Elizabeth (c.1585-October 10, 1628), and Thomas (d. January 17, 1605/6). Although she died in November 1600, she was not buried, in St. Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny, until April 21, 1601.
FRANCES SHEFFIELD (1586-1615)
Frances Sheffield was the daughter of Edmund Sheffield, 3rd baron Sheffield and 1st earl of Mulgrave (1566-1646) and Ursula Tyrwhitt (d. before 1619). In 1607 she married Philip Fairfax of Sheeton, Bolton Percy, Yorkshire (1586-1612+). Their children were William (1609/10-1644), Edmund, John, Thomas, Mary, and Ursula. Portrait: she is probably the subject of the portrait of Lady Frances Fairfax by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger c.1605-1615.
see ANNE THROCKMORTON
ELIZABETH SHELDON (c.1553-October 23, 1622)
Elizabeth Sheldon was the daughter of Sir Ralph Sheldon of Beoley, Worcestershire (1537-1613), a manufacturer of tapestry maps, and Anne Throckmorton (c.1540-1603). On May 13, 1575, with a dowry of £550, she married a particularly quarrelsome man, John Russell of Strensham, Worcestershire (1551-1593). He’d already carried on one feud with his stepmother and her second husband, over her dower lands, and he found it easy to find fault with Elizabeth and her father in the matter of religion. They were recusants. He was not. They had three children together, Thomas (1577-December 30, 1632), John, and Frances (1582-1622?), but by 1578 he was attempting to disinherit them. In spite of this, the couple still occasionally lived together during the next few years, but a final split came c. 1583. After arbitration, he complained that the income established for Elizabeth was too high and made a counteroffer in March 1584. There were continual clashes. Russell attacked Ralph Sheldon's house, trying to take away his daughter. Elizabeth's brother attacked Russell's house in London. Russell brought suit in Star Chamber, accusing the Sheldons of papistry. In July 1585, however, the children were restored as Russell's heirs and in the will he wrote on April 24, 1587, before leaving for the Low Countries, and proved July 31, 1598, he left his daughter 2000 marks at eighteen or when she married. Ralph Sheldon left his daughter Elizabeth a silver basin and "my little watch made by Samuel" in his will, dated November 20, 1612.
see JANE WEST
MARY SHELDON (d.1548+)
Mary Sheldon was the daughter of Ralph Sheldon of Beoley, Worcestershire and Weston Park, Long Compton, Warwickshire (d. September 11, 1546) and Philippa Heath (d.1548/9). Mary was placed in the household of Ursula (neé de Vere) Knightley, widow of Sir Edmund Knightley, at Offchurch, Warwickshire. While there, she fell in love with one of Lady Knightley's servants, a man called Sylvestre. When her father died, Mary was sent to live at Balford Hall in Beoley but since she was by then pregnant by Sylvestre, she wrote to Lady Knightley, asking to be taken back into her household. She didn't want her mother to find out. Lady Knightley wrote to the head of the family, Mary's brother William Sheldon, telling him the whole story and asking for permission to take Mary in. William refused and sent his errant sister to relatives, John and Alice Fox. Mary ran away from the Fox house, returned to Offchurch, and married her lover. All this led to a complaint in the Star Chamber by William and Philippa against Lady Knightley. They charged her with abduction, claiming that Lady Knightley had been at fault for allowing Mary to become pregnant, that her tenants had ridden to John Fox's house and taken Mary away, and that she had persuaded Mary to wed Sylvestre. Lady Knightley countercharged that Mary was "unmannerly" but insisted Philippa Sheldon was guilty of cruelty. The results of the case are not known, nor is the fate of the child Mary conceived before her marriage. Later, however, she remarried, taking as her second husband a very respectable gentleman named George Ferrers of Wetherley/Witherby, Warwickshire, third son of Sir Edward Ferrers of Baddesley Clinton.
see MARY WILLINGTON
see ALICE BELKNAP
ELIZABETH SHELLEY (c.1475-1547)
Elizabeth Shelley of Michaelgrove, Sussex, was the daughter of John Shelley (c.1455-January 3, 1526) and Elizabeth Michaelgrove (c.1458-June 30, 1518; alt. dates 1450-July 3, 1514 OR 1450-July 3,1514). The Oxford DNB gives her father's life dates as 1456-1527 and her mother's as 1460-1513. Elizabeth became a Benedictine nun and in 1527 was elected abbess of Nunnaminster (Abbey of St. Mary, Winchester). She was a correspondent of Honor Grenville, Lady Lisle and one of Lady Lisle's stepdaughters, Bridget Plantagenet, was for a time in the school for girls at St. Mary's. This was, however, the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries and although the abbess was able to save her house in the first round of closings, in part by a bribe of £333 6s. 8d., and the nunnery was given a good report by the commissioners who visited it on May 15, 1536, in September 1538 an order was issued to close St. Mary's and disperse the 102 people who lived there, including twenty-six nuns and thirteen lay sisters. Elizabeth surrendered the premises on November 15, 1539 and accepted a pension of £26 13s. 4d. This was on the low side for an abbess. The prioress received £5, two nuns received £4 each, two £2 16.s. 8d. each, and seventeen others each received £2 13s. 4d. Elizabeth Shelley continued to live in Winchester in the abbess's lodging, which contained seven chambers, a hall, parlor, and domestic offices, until her death, together with six nuns who had been under her jurisdiction as abbess. One was her niece, Margaret Shelley. They were mentioned in her will, dated March 2, 1547, as was her brother, Richard. Other bequests suggest she had a modest wardrobe in her secular life. Elizabeth was buried in the Winchester College chapel. Biography: article in Oxford DNB under "Shelley, Elizabeth." See also Mary C. Erler, Reading and Writing During the Dissolution: Monks, Friars, and Nuns 1530-1558, pp. 74-78.
ELIZABETH SHELLEY (c.1510-December 24, 1560)
Elizabeth Shelley was the daughter of Sir William Shelley of Michaelgrove (c.1480-January 4, 1549) and Alice Belknap (d.1536). She married, as his second wife, Roger Copley of Roughey, Sussex and Gatton, Surrey (c.1473-September 10, 1549) and had at least three children, Thomas (1532-September 25, 1584), whose godfather was Thomas Boleyn, earl of Wiltshire, Bridget (c.1534-1583+), and Margaret (1539-1576+). Some sources say that, in 1554, as a widow, Elizabeth was elected M.P. for Gatton, although it was actually her son who went to London and took the seat in Parliament. More accurately, from 1549-1559, she was sole elector for Grafton and returned her son to three Marian parliaments.
ELIZABETH SHELLEY (c.1533-1581+)
Elizabeth Shelley was the daughter of Sir John Shelley of Michelgrove (1506-December 16, 1550) and Mary Fitzwilliam (b.c.1510). She is better known as Lady Guildford, a recusant arrested along with her son and daughter, a priest, and several others on Palm Sunday 1574 for allowing mass to be said in her home in Trinity Lane, Queenshithe, London. Elizabeth’s husband, to whom she was married by 1560, was Sir Thomas Guildford of Hemsted, Kent (c.1535-June 1575), who was not a Catholic. They had four children—Mary, Barbara (d. June 20, 1641), Elizabeth (d.1589+), and Henry (b.1566). Guildford's will, made on November 1, 1574, granted Elizabeth a life interest in his lease of a farm at Clapham. He appealed to her "not to train up any of my children in papistry." She ignored his request. By 1581, Elizabeth had married John Gage of Firle, Sussex (d. October 10, 1598), a fellow Catholic, as her second husband.
ELIZABETH SHELLEY (d.1631+)
Elizabeth Shelley was the daughter of John Shelley of Woodborough, Nottinghamshire. Her first husband was Marmaduke Constable. Her second was Thomas Carleton of Carleton, Cumberland (June 19, 1568-May 11, 1639). They had no children and lived quietly on his estate because Elizabeth was blind. They used this excuse to avoid Carleton serving as sheriff in 1631, wishing to spare her the "trouble and thankless charge of entertaining the judges."
JANE SHELLEY (c. 1485-1533+)
Jane Shelley was the daughter of John Shelley of Michelgrove, Sussex (c.1455-January 3, 1526/7) and Elizabeth Michelgrove (c.1458-June 30, 1518; alt. dates 1450-July 3,1514) and married Sir Edward Bellingham of Erringham, Sussex (d. c.1514). Jane and Edward Bellingham had three children, Katherine (b.1500), John (d. November 1, 1540), and Sir Edward (d. April 10, 1550). In December 1514, she bought her younger son Edward's wardship from the 2nd duke of Norfolk with the help of her new husband, William Everard (d.1524), and her brothers, John and William Shelley. Her sons were still minors when her second husband died. Jane is probably the Lady Jane Bellingham who was implicated in the affair of Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent, in 1533. There was, however another Jane Bellingham living at the time. She was Jane Eure or Evers (c.1491-1538+), who was probably the sister of Robert Eure or Evers of Belton, Lincolnshire (1488-March 1, 1526). She was the wife of Richard (or Thomas) Bellingham of Manton (c.1484-October 5, 1558), but he does not appear to have been knighted, so she would not have been Lady Bellingham. Their children, born between 1514 and 1538, included Robert, Richard, Katherine, Joane or Jane, Thomas, Troth or Tristram, Christopher, Henry, Edward, and John.
see ANNE BOLEYN
ANNE SHELTON (d. September 17, 1563)
Anne Shelton was the daughter of Sir John Shelton of Shelton and Carrow, Norfolk (c.1472-December 21, 1539) and Anne Boleyn (c.1475-December 1556), the sister of Queen Anne Boleyn's father. Anne married Sir Edmund Knyvett of Buckenham Castle, Norfolk (d. May 1, 1551) by 1527. As he was not knighted until 1538/9, she may have been the Mistress Anne Knyvett in the household of Princess Mary in Wales in 1525-7. In 1538, her aunt, Alice Boleyn Clere, left her "a tablet of gold with the picture of the Salutation of Our Lady in it with 8 rubies and 24 pearls in the same." Their children still living when Anne died in 1563 were Thomas (d. September 22, 1569), Edmund, Henry, and Anthony. Her second husband was Christopher Coote of Blonorton, by whom may have had another son, Richard (d.1563+).
ELIZABETH SHELTON (1505+-1561+)
Elizabeth Shelton was the daughter of Sir John Shelton of Shelton and Carrow, Norfolk (c.1472-December 21, 1539) and Anne Boleyn (c.1475-December 1556). Her aunt, Alice Boleyn Clere, left her a ring with an emerald in it in 1538. Her uncle, James Boleyn of Blickling, Norfolk (c.1480-1561) left her 200 marks in his will, written August 20, 1561 and proved November 21, 1561. He asked the queen to provide the money out of the arrears of an annuity. The following December, Elizabeth Shelton was granted an annuity of £30. This is all I have been able to learn about her, but she appears to have still been unmarried at a fairly advanced age. So was her sister Amy (or Amica), who also received an annuity of £30 from Queen Elizabeth on January 24, 1566 for "services" to the queen. The same online source gives Amy a will dated April 20, 1566, but another website says she didn't die until November 1579. Considering how often Elizabeth and Amy's sisters, Margaret and Mary, are confused, I draw no conclusions.
ETHELRED or AUDREY
SHELTON (June 10, 1568-1631)
Ethelred or Audrey Shelton was the daughter of Sir Ralph Shelton (d.1580) and Mary Wodehouse or Woodhouse. She married Sir Thomas Walsingham of Scadbury, Chislehurst, Kent (1568-August 11, 1630), by whom she had a son, also named Thomas (d.1669), and a daughter, Mary. She was a lady of the bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth and, in July 1597, the queen visited Lady Walsingham at Scadbury. In 1598, George Chapman dedicated his continuation of Christopher Marlowe’s Hero and Leander to Lady Walsingham. Ingram Frizer, who figures in the death of Marlowe, was later Lady Walsingham’s servant. In 1603, she and her husband walked in Queen Elizabeth’s funeral procession. Later she went to Scotland to attend Queen Anne. She was appointed keeper of the queen's robes, a post she held jointly with her husband from 1608. In 1604, she received a pension of £200 for life. In 1608, Lady Walsingham’s lodging by the Tilt Yard was the setting for the marriage between Sir Robert Cecil’s son, William, and Katherine Howard, daughter of the earl of Suffolk. Audrey was a close friend of Cecil's and one of several women rumored to have been his mistress. She was buried in Chislehurst Church on August 24, 1631.
see MARGARET PARKER
MARGARET SHELTON (1500+-before September 11,1583)
Known as “Madge,” Margaret Shelton was the daughter of Sir John Shelton of Shelton and Carrow, Norfolk (c.1472-December 21, 1539) and Anne Boleyn (c.1475-December 1556), the sister of Queen Anne Boleyn’s father. Madge came to court as a maid of honor to her cousin by 1535 and is said to have been Henry VIII’s mistress for about six months, from February of that year. Francis Weston, who was married, flirted with Margaret later in 1535 and she was courted by Henry Norris, a widower. Both Norris and Weston were arrested and executed in 1536 in connection with Anne Boleyn's alleged adultery. Kimberley Schutte, in her biography of Lady Margaret Douglas, describes Madge Shelton as a "pretty girl with dimples . . . very gentle in countenance" and "soft of speech," but she also seems to think Margaret and her sister Mary were the same person and further identifies Madge as the "handsome young lady at court" who may have been the king's mistress in 1534. In The Mistresses of Henry VIII, Kelly Hart also identifies "Madge" as Mary Shelton (see next entry) but it makes more sense to me that Margaret was Henry's mistress during Anne Boleyn's tenure as queen. Some accounts also say Madge was with Anne Boleyn in Calais in 1532 and with Queen Anne on the scaffold. Others repeat the story of Queen Anne berating a maid of honor for writing secular poems in a religious book and identify the girl as Mistress Shelton. Oddly, the same story is told about Anne Gainsford. The name "Mistress Shelton" next crops up in connection with the king in 1538, as both a potential mistress and in describing Christina of Milan, who was said to resemble her. Assuming this was a reference to Margaret, I've included Christina's portrait, painted by Hans Holbein the younger, in this entry. It bears little resemblance to the known Holbein sketch of Mary Shelton. It is unlikely King Henry was considering making Margaret his mistress again in 1538, since she was by then married to Thomas Wodehouse or Woodhouse of Kimberley, Norfolk (1510-September 10, 1547). Prior to Wodehouse's death in the battle of Musselborough, they had six children: Roger (c.1541-April 4, 1588), John (b.c.1543), Anne, Elizabeth, Mary, and Henry (b. January 3, 1546).
MARY SHELTON (1512?-January 1571)
Mary Shelton was the daughter of Sir John Shelton of Shelton and Carrow, Norfolk (c.1472-December 21, 1539) and Anne Boleyn (c.1475-December 1556), the sister of Queen Anne Boleyn's father. Suggestions for the date of her birth range from 1512 to 1520. A number of scholars, including Kelly Hart in The Mistresses of Henry VIII, argue that Mary Shelton was the king's mistress in 1535 and also a candidate to become Henry's fourth wife. I find the logic of this unconvincing. The single mention of Mary Shelton as one of two ladies in whom the king was interested in 1538 comes in a letter that says nothing about marriage. The comment could as easily refer to the king's choice of one of the two as his next mistress. What we do know to be true about Mary is that she was friends with Lady Margaret Douglas, Lady Mary Howard, duchess of Richmond, and Lady Mary's brother, Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. She contributed to and edited the "Devonshire Manuscript," a collection of poems, some of them original, that was passed around among members of their circle. Two of the poems suggest that Sir Thomas Wyatt pursued Mary and was rejected by her. Of course, Wyatt was married at the time. Following Sir John Shelton's death, Kelly Hart says that Mary entered the convent of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, but that is impossible. The priory had been dissolved more than a year earlier (November 25, 1538). There was a Mary Shelton there at that time, but she was a nun. She was granted an annuity of £4 and would have been required by law to remain single. Our Mary may have been in attendance upon Queen Catherine Howard. After Catherine's arrest, Mary spent most of the next year with her friends Mary Howard and Margaret Douglas at Kenninghall in Norfolk, Mary Howard's home. Mary fell in love with Thomas Clere, one of the earl of Surrey's close friends. They intended to marry, but were prevented by Clere's death on April 14, 1545. Clere made her his principal heir and she is mentioned in the elegy Surrey wrote to Clere. Probably sometime in 1546, Mary wed Sir Anthony Heveningham (c.1507-November 22, 1557). It is as Lady Heveningham that Surrey wrote to her, while she was staying at the house of her brother, Jerome Shelton, formerly part of the priory of St. Helen and this letter led to the suggestion that she be questioned after Surrey was arrested for treason. After Heveningham died, Mary wed Philip Appleyard of Shropham, Norfolk (c.1528-1571+), a country gentleman. In 1567, they jointly received a crown lease of property at Whaplode, Lincolnshire, in which they were described as "Queen's servants." Her children by Heveningham were Mary, Anne, Jane, Bridget, Sir Arthur (d.October 8, 1630), Abigail (d.1611+), Henry, John, and Dorothy. She may have been the Lady Heveningham at court in 1558/9 but she remarried soon after. By Appleyard she had one daughter, Anne. Biography: Paul G. Remley, "Mary Shelton and her Tudor Literary Milieu" in Rethinking the Tudor Era; Elizabeth Heale, ed., The Devonshire Manuscript: A Woman's Book of Courtly Poetry; Oxford DNB entry under "Shelton, Mary." NOTE: The DNB gives the date of death for Mary's mother as 1555 and says Mary had only five children but names only Arthur and Abigail. Portrait: the Holbein sketch labeled "The Lady Henegham" in the Royal Library at Windsor.
MARY SHELTON (c.1550-November 15,1603)
Mary Shelton was the daughter of Sir John Shelton (1503-1558) and Margaret Parker. She was at court as a chamberer to Queen Elizabeth from January 1, 1571, but angered the queen when she secretly married Sir James Scudamore of Holme Lacy, Herefordshire (1542-April 15,1623), a gentleman usher, in January 1573/4. She was his second wife. By his first, Eleanor Croft (d.1569), he had five children. Queen Elizabeth is said to have been so angry that she attacked Mary and broke her finger. In spite of this incident, Mary continued as a chamberer and became quite influential at court as well as being a favorite with the queen. As early as October 26, 1574, she received a forepart of cloth of silver with a fringe from the queen. She was never banished from court. Other royal gifts included £400 in 1591 and £300 in 1594.In 1587, she was given the job of helping Mary Radcliffe, keeper of jewels, with the bundles of furs sent to the queen by Ivan the Terrible. She had no children by Scudamore. Many letters by and about her are extant. She was buried at Holme Lacy on August 15, 1603. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Scudamore [née Shelton], Mary;” online pdf “Lady Mary Scudamore (c.1550-1603), Courtier” by Warren Skidmore. Portrait: The portrait of Lady Scudamore attributed to Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger c.1601 is Mary but it is sometimes misidentified as Eleanor Croft (d.1569), Sybill Vaughan (d.1559), or Ursula Pakington (d.1558).
see MARGARET SWEET
JANE SHEPPARD (1568-1622)
Jane Sheppard was the daughter of Robert and Elizabeth Sheppard. Her father held a minor post at court. She was baptized at St. Margaret's, Westminster on November 1, 1568. She was known in the family as "Jennet." In about 1593, she married John Davenant (1565-1622), a vintner. They lived in St. James Garlickhythe. Jane consulted Simon Forman in January 1598, thinking she was with child, but she was not. By that time she had already lost several children. She'd lost six by 1600, when the Davenants moved to Oxford. There they ran a wine tavern, the Crown, with about twenty rooms. William Shakespeare often stayed there on his way from London to Stratford. Over the next twenty years they had quite a number of children, seven of whom, including Jane (1601-1672), Nicholas, William (1606-1668), and Robert, lived to grow up. It has been suggested that one of them, William, was William Shakespeare's illegitimate son, but this is unlikely. It is possible, however, that Shakespeare was his godfather when he was baptized at St. Martin's, Carfax on March 3, 1606. William Davenant grew up to be Sir William, the poet laureate. According to John Aubrey, Jane was "a very beautiful woman & of a very good witt and of conversation extremely agreable." She died two weeks before her husband in the year he was Lord Mayor of Oxford. After Davenant's death, his apprentice, Thomas Hallom, was granted his freedom early, married the eldest daughter, Jane, and continued the business. After Hallom's death in 1636, Jane took over and during her widowhood took on five apprentices of her own.
CECILY or CECILIA
SHERLEY or SHIRLEY (1570-July
Cecily or Cecilia Sherley or Shirley was the youngest daughter of Sir Thomas Sherley of Wiston, Sussex (May 9, 1542-October 16, 1612) and Anne Kempe (c.1544-1623). She married her father’s godson, Thomas West, 3rd baron de la Warr (July 9, 1577-June 7, 1618) in November 1596. He served in the Low Countries and was imprisoned in 1601 for supporting the earl of Essex. In 1609/10 he was appointed first Governor of Virginia. He sailed there in 1610, returned to England in 1611, sailed there again in 1617, and died at sea. Their children were Joan (c.1601-c.1650), Henry, 4th baron (October 3, 1603-June 1, 1628), Anne (c.1605-c.1660), Elizabeth (c.1606-c.1660), Cecily (c.1609-1638), Lucy (c.1611-c.1660), John (1615-October 6, 1683), Twyford (b.1616), and Catherine (c.1618-c.1660). Several of Cecily’s daughters acted with their mother in a court masque at Twelfth Night 1616/17. On September 19, 1619, Cecily was granted a pension for thirty-one years. It was renewed in 1634, stopped by the Civil War, and restored in 1662.
see FRANCES VAVASOUR
see TERESA SAMPSONIA
see ANNE BRANDON
see BARBARA BLOUNT
see DOROTHY WROUGHTON
see ELIZABETH GORGES
ELIZABETH SHIRLEY (c.1555-1624+)
Elizabeth Shirley was the daughter of Francis Shirley of West Grinstead, Sussex (c.1524-March 20, 1577/8) and Barbara Blount (c.1538-February 28, 1563/4). They were a recusant family. Elizabeth's first husband, to whom she was married by 1582, was William Wyborne (Wyborn/Wybarn) of Hawkswell, Sussex (c.1540-c.1612). They do not appear to have had any children but took in the orphaned sons and daughters of his sister Ellen or Eleanor—John, Walter, William Margaret, and Mary Windsor. Upon her husband's death, Elizabeth inherited the estate of Little Hawkswell and her husband's debts, which far outweighed his assets. On April 2, 1612, she conveyed all her goods, household stuff, chattels and goods to his executors, Sir Richard Blunt and Dudley Norton, retaining only £30 for herself. At some point prior to this, Elizabeth agreed to marry Ambrose Vaux (c.1570-April 1626), a younger son of Lord Vaux of Harrowden. He was under the impression that she was a wealthy widow. It is difficult to say what she saw in him. Vaux, who had been knighted by the Franciscans in Jerusalem, but was only an esquire under English law, had been abroad as a religious exile and had only just returned to England. Almost at once, he was thrown into the King's Bench prison, probably for debt, although he soon managed to obtain his freedom. According to Ambrose, they were married about April 4, 1612, probably in a secret Catholic ceremony. Soon afterward, Elizabeth was persuaded by her late husband's friends to leave her new husband and live in the house of Dudley Norton (Jessie Childs, in God's Traitors: Terror and Faith in Elizabethan England, says it was the house of one Billyes in Fleet Street).There are huge gaps in the story, but according to the summary given in Godfrey Anstruther's Vaux of Harrowden, when Ambrose heard in August that Elizabeth had gone to a play at the Globe with Norton, he went there to find her. In Ambrose's version, Norton and several other men assaulted him. According to Norton, Ambrose attempted to abduct Elizabeth against her will and offered to draw his dagger when Norton, seeing how frightened Elizabeth was, objected. There were several witnesses, Norton's servant, Joseph Mullis or Mules, and Elizabeth's first husband's two nieces, Margaret Franke and Mary Windsor. The case was heard in the Star Chamber in May 1613 with the end result that the marriage was declared valid. Childs gives an account of a second Star Chamber case in 1621, which involved a broken door in Elizabeth's rooms in St. Mary-le-Strand, into which she had moved in January 1620, and bodily harm done to her landlord. She found fault with the rooms and when the landlord took offense, a brawl ensued. Ambrose Vaux is named in the landlord's account but no one else mentions his presence. At some point, King James granted Elizabeth two thirds of the lands belonging to Edward Wyborne, her brother-in-law, for her relief, since Wyborne was a recusant. In 1624, when Wyborne died, she received a similar grant from the lands of his son Benjamin. Anstruther says she needed the income, since Vaux did not support her. Whether they lived together is unknown, but he was buried in the parish of St. Mary-le-Strand on April 25, 1626.
ELIZABETH SHIRLEY (1564/5-September 1,1641)
Elizabeth Shirley was the daughter of Sir John Shirley of Shirley, Leicestershire (1535-September 12,1570) and Jane Lovett. She was raised in the Church of England but at about the age of twenty went to live with her brother, George Shirley (1559-April 27,1622), a recusant, as his housekeeper. There she was converted to Catholicism. Following George’s marriage to Frances Berkeley (c.1560-December 9, 1595) in 1586/7 she decided to become a nun. She joined the cloister of St. Ursula in Louvain in Flanders, where she was professed as a nun on September 10, 1596. This was a Flemish house, but since 1569 had been ruled by an English prioress, Margaret Clement (d.1612). In 1606, Clement retired and the English nuns began to make plans for a separate convent. They established the English Augustinian cloister of St. Monica’s at Louvain on February 10, 1609, thanks in large part to Elizabeth Shirley’s handling of the finances, and from that November until 1637, she served as sub-prioress. Jane (Sister Mary) Wiseman was elected as the first prioress. In 1626, Elizabeth wrote a biography of Margaret Clement that included a history of the English Augustinians in Louvain. This was probably the earliest biography of a woman written in English by someone who had known the subject during her lifetime. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Shirley, Elizabeth.”
see FRANCES BERKELEY
ISABEL SHIRLEY (d. July 1533+)
Isabel Shirley was one of the daughters of Sir Ralph Shirley of Wiston/Westmeston, Sussex (1433-1510) and Jane Bellingham. She married first, on January 17, 1508, Sir John Dawtrey of Southampton (c.1433-November 24, 1518) and had a son, Francis (1510-July 1533+). A record of July 1533 identifies Francis as the son of Sir John Dawtry and Isabella, "now wife of Sir Richard Lyster." Sir Richard's wife is often misidentified as Jane Shirley, largely because Isabel's sister also married a man named Sir John Dawtrey. This second Sir John was of Petworth and Moor House, Sussex and did not die until September 21, 1542. Isabel's second husband, Sir Richard Lister or Lyster (c.1480-March 16, 1553/4), was a chief justice of the king's bench. The Oxford DNB says their children were Richard and Charles and possibly Elizabeth (1520-1572), but calls Lyster's son Michael (d.1551) the child of a later wife, Elizabeth Stoke (d.1567+). Not only is this not possible, since Michael was already married to his first wife in 1529, but Richard and Charles were Michael's sons, not Richard's. His will, proved April 16, 1554, makes Richard, "son and heir of my late son Michael," his principal heir and identifies Charles, who was not yet twenty-one, as the younger son of Michael and his second wife, Margery. Richard also mentions his daughter, Elizabeth and her husband, Richard Blount, in his will. Elizabeth is probably Isabel's daughter. Michael seems to belong to an earlier, unknown wife. Isabel's first husband, John Dawtrey, and his first wife, Joan Scardeville, had what is now known as "The Tudor House" in Southampton built for them in 1495. After Dawtrey's death and during her second marriage, Isabel continued to trade as a merchant of Southampton dealing in millstones. Portrait: Isabel is the most likely possibility to be the subject of the Holbein sketch labeled "Lady Lister" and dated c.1532-1543. Alternatives are Michael Lyster's second wife, Margery Horsman, and Elizabeth Stoke.
see ELIZABETH LAMBERT
SUSAN SHORE (c.1577-January 1648)
Susan Shore may have been the daughter of a player with Worcester's Men c.1593. Through her husbands, she was part owner of three playhouses in the London area, the Boar's Head, the Red Bull in Shoreditch, and the Fortune. Her first husband was Robert Browne (d. October 1603) an actor with Derby's Men in 1599-1600 and a shareholder in the Boar's Head. They had five children, Robert (c.1599-1612+), Susan (1600-1612+), William (1602-1634), Elizabeth (1603-1612+), and Anne (1604-1612+). William was a paid actor with Queen Anne's Men by 1616. In October 1603, Joan Alleyn wrote to her husband, player Edward Alleyn, that "Browne of the Boar's Head is dead, and died very poor." He left no will. Susan, who was six months pregnant in October, was granted administration of his estate on January 9, 1604. After Browne died, Susan married Thomas Greene (d.1612) within a few months. He became a sharer in the Queen's Men. He was best known as a comedian. In c.1606, Greene and Susan leased the Boar's Head to another company. At the time of his death, Greene owned nine of the eighteen shares in the Red Bull in Clerkenwell. Greene was buried on August 7, 1612 in St. James, Clerkenwell and soon after his widow made a claim on the company of players for £117 due to her late husband. An agreement was made whereby they would pay her half their profits until the debt was cleared. In June 1613, Susan married James Baskerville (d.1623+) and he was persuaded to purchase a life pension from Queen Anne's Men for £57 10s. The payout was supposed to be twenty pence a day until both he and Susan died. By June 1616, having failed to make payments, the company agreed to pay an additional two shillings daily, or 3s. 8d/day, until the difference had been made up In a slightly different version of the terms, the additional two shillings pension were to go to Susan or to her son, Francis Browne, in exchange for a further investment of £38. Whatever the exact agreement was, payments were in arrears as early as July 26, 1616. According to the reply of Susan Baskerville made to a later bill of complaint by the players, her third husband fled to Ireland at Lent 1617. It seems he was a bigamist. Susan subsequently instituted proceedings to collect her pension. At one point the agreement was that she would receive 3s. 8d. daily for each performance if any four of the company played together at any other playhouse or public stage (that is other than the Red Bull) within London or two miles of it. In the agreement made on June 3, 1617, payment was to be made to her at the Cockpit in Drury Lane. Yet another account of the settlement says that the money was to go to William Browne, who was by then an actor with the company, when Susan died. The company reneged again, and by this point, although Susan now controlled her husband's stake in the company, she may have lost her claim on earnings at the Cockpit in Drury Lane, where the company was now playing. She was still involved with the Queen's Men in 1626. She was buried in Clerkenwell. The most recent scholarship on the ins and outs of theatrical companies of this era is Theater, Community and Court Engagement in Jacobean London (2011) by Mark Bayer. See also Herbert Berry, The Boar's Head Playhouse. Some older accounts say that a Susan Baskerville ran the Red Bull inn as a playhouse in 1557, but this is inaccurate.
see FRANCES MEAUTAS
see ANNE HARRIS
see ANNE LACY
ANNE SIDNEY (c.1525-June 11, 1602)
Anne Sidney was the daughter of Sir William Sidney (1482-1554) and Anne Pagenham (d. October 22, 1544). She married William Fitzwilliam of Gaynes Park, Essex (1526-June 22, 1599). Her wedding settlement, dated January 4, 1543, gave her the use of all of his Essex lands for life should he die before her. They had five children: William (c.1550-1618), John (1554-1612), Mary, Margaret, and Philippa (1564-1596). Agnes raised them on her own for the most part, since her husband was so often in Ireland during their marriage. She was there with him part of the time, however, and in 1571, when he was suffering from an ague, she wrote to the queen to ask that he be recalled. Instead, he was appointed Lord Deputy. His enemies claimed Anne made all his decisions for him. Certainly he trusted her. In 1575, he sent her to England to make a personal appeal to the queen for his recall. This time she succeeded, and he remained in England for most of the period from 1575 to 1588. The queen visited his house at Gaynes Park on September 19, 1578, but Anne was not there at the time. She had gone to Bath for her health. Fitzwilliam was again sent to Ireland as Lord Deputy in 1588. His service there left him in debt and he was forced to sell property that had been assured to Anne at their marriage. Late in life he went blind. His will left Anne apparel, ornaments, plate, and jewels and warned her not to trust their son William. Portraits: possible portrait c. 1545; by George Gower c. 1577; "Lady Fitzwilliam" by George Gower 1577; monument in Theydon Garnon Church, Essex.
see ANNE PAKENHAM
see BARBARA GAMAGE
ELIZABETH SIDNEY (November 1585-1614)
Elizabeth Sidney was the daughter of Sir Philip Sidney (November 30, 1554-October 17, 1586) and Frances Walsingham (c. October 1567-February 17, 1633). In March 1599, she married Roger Manners, 5th earl of Rutland (October 6, 1576-June 26, 1612). On January 5, 1606, Elizabeth participated in the climax of the court masque, Hymenaei, created by Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones. She represented one of the Powers and in order to participate paid £80 to Mr. Bethall, the gentleman usher, £10 for cutwork lace, £4 8s. for silk, and £12 3s. for a coronet, a pair of silk hose, a ruff, and a pair of shoes, all part of her costume. Because of his marriage to Elizabeth, her husband had become involved in the treasonous schemes of her stepfather, the earl of Essex, in 1601. Elizabeth herself figures in two controversies. One concerns her portrait or portraits. The argument has been made that she is the subject of the portrait by William Segar c.1590 usually identified as her mother, Frances, and that by comparing the face in that portrait to the unknown lady c.1595 by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, this, too, can be identified as Elizabeth Sidney. There are several problems with this. For one thing, in 1595, Elizabeth was only eleven years old. For another, the lady is shown as being obviously pregnant and Elizabeth Sidney never had any children. However, it is an interesting portrait, and I include it here for what it is worth. It is also possible that Elizabeth, not her mother, is the subject of the portrait of a lady in Persian dress (c.1600 by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger), obviously another masque costume. The second controversy is over the death of Elizabeth's husband and her own death. Several sources online claim she poisoned him to free herself from an unhappy marriage and that a short time later she was herself killed in revenge for his death. One problem with this is that very reliable sources, including biographies of her father and grandfather, give the date 1614 for Elizabeth's death, and one source says September 1, 1615. The Oxford DNB (under "Manners, Roger"), however, says that Frances died "within a fortnight of her husband's funeral (in 1612), occasioning wild rumours that she had been poisoned by medicine supplied by Sir Walter Raleigh." The entry also reports gossip that Sir Thomas Overbury was in love with her. Playwright Ben Jonson said of Elizabeth Sidney that she was "nothing inferior to her father in poetry," although examples of her writing do not seem to have survived. Elizabeth was buried near her father in at St. Paul's, although she shares a memorial at Bottesford with her husband.
FRANCES SIDNEY (c.1531-March 9,1588/9)
Frances Sidney was the daughter of Sir William Sidney (1482-1554) and Anne Pagenham (d.October 22, 1544). In April 1555, she married Thomas Radcliffe, Lord Fitzwalter, later earl of Sussex (1526-June 9, 1583) at Hampton Court. King Philip attended the ceremony and participated in the tournament held afterward. The Oxford DNB places Frances in Ireland with her husband from 1556-1564 but although Fitzwalter (earl of Sussex after February 1557) was based in Dublin (as was Frances's brother, Sir Henry Sidney), and Frances was sometimes with him, he spent thirty-five months of his eight year term in England. At Christmas 1557, both Frances and her husband were at court and in high favor with Queen Mary. Frances also seems to have gotten along well with Queen Elizabeth. In September 1565, she was delegated to escort Cecilia of Sweden to court. Frances was in Berwick during her husband's tenure as Lord President of the North. She caught smallpox there in the summer of 1571. Also in 1571, she twice entertained the queen at Bermondsey House. Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, describes her as "bedevilled with ill health," citing illnesses in spring 1571, winter 1575, and 1582 at court. Frances was a patron of the arts, receiving a number of dedications. After her husband’s death, she continued to sponsor his company of players, now called the Countess of Sussex’s Men. The Oxford DNB entry reports that Frances had enemies who turned her husband and the queen against her during the last months of his life (early 1583), although before that she had been "a loved and loyal wife." After his death, she enjoyed an income of £2062 from his estates and had possession of the house in Bermondsdy for life. By 1587, she was engaged in a dispute with her brother-in-law, the new earl. The DNB entry recounts Frances's courtship by Arthur Hall (1539-December 29, 1605) c. 1586. Rejected, he wrote a book purported to be the story of their relationship. Hungaryous Hystory offended the queen and was suppressed. Hall was later confined in the Marshalsea, and then the Fleet (1588-9) when he continued his harrassment. Frances had puritan leanings and a deep interest in education. In her will she left £5000 to found the Lady Frances Sidney-Sussex College at Cambridge. Construction there was begun in 1596. She had no children. She was buried in the chapel of St. Paul in Westminster Abbey, where an inscription describes her as "adorned with many and most rare gifts of both mynde and bodye; towards God trulie and zelousle religious; to her friends and kinefoulke most liberall; to the poore, to prisoners and to the ministers of the worde of God, allwaies most charitable." Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Radcliffe [née Sidney] Frances." Portraits: by Steven van der Meulen c.1565; by George Gower, c.1575; effigy in Westminster Abbey; statue at Sidney-Sussex College.
see FRANCES WALSINGHAM
LUCY SIDNEY (c.1520-c.1591)
Lucy Sidney was the daughter of Sir William Sidney of Penshurst, Kent (1482-1554) and Anne Pagenham (d. October 22, 1544). She married Sir James Harington of Exton, Rutland (1511- January 24, 1592) by 1539. They had eight sons and nine daughters including Sir John (c.1540-August 23, 1613), Catherine, Elizabeth (d. May 19,1618), Mabel (d. June 21, 1603), Sir Henry (d. December 24, 1612), Sir James (c.1542-February 2, 1613/14), Mary, Margaret (d.1601), Anne, Theodosia (c.1560-January 1649/50), and Sarah (1566-September 1629). Portrait: tomb effigy in Exton Parish Church, Exton, Rutland.
see MARGARET DAKINS
see MARY DUDLEY
MARY SIDNEY (October 27, 1561-September 25, 1621)
Mary Sidney was the daughter of Sir Henry Sidney (June 20,1529-May 5,1586) and Mary Dudley (1532-August 1586) and the sister of Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586). She was probably the daughter placed with Mildred Cooke, Lady Burghley, while the Sidneys were in Ireland in 1569. She was one of Queen Elizabeth's ladies before she married. On April 21, 1577 she married Henry Herbert, 2nd earl of Pembroke (1540-January 19, 1601), by whom she had William (April 8, 1580-April 10, 1630), Katherine (1581-1584), Anne (b.1583), and Philip (1584-1650). She was one of the foremost patrons of the arts as well as a poet and translator in her own right. Biographies: by Frances Young; by Margaret P. Hannay (Philip's Phoenix); Oxford DNB entry under "Herbert [née Sidney], Mary." Portraits: a painting by Marcus Gheeraerts once identified as Mary Sidney is actually Mary Throckmorton, Lady Scudamore; miniature in the Victoria & Albert Museum; engraving by Simon van de Passe, c.1618.
MARY SIDNEY (October 18,1587-c.1652)
Mary Sidney was the daughter of Robert Sidney (1563-1626) and Barbara Gamage (1562-1621). On September 24, 1604, she married Sir Robert Wroth (c.1576-March 1614), by whom she had one son, James (February 1614-July 5,1616). When she was widowed, her husband’s estate was deeply in debt, so she wrote to earn money. The Countesse of Mountgomeries’s Urania was published in 1621. Although it contained poems, it was the first prose fiction written in English by a woman. She also the first woman known to have written a sonnet sequence. She received many dedications from other writers, as well as being mentioned in some of their works. She had two children, William and Katherine, during her widowhood, fathered by her cousin, William Herbert, 3rd earl of Pembroke (1580-1630). Biography: Mary Sidney Wroth by Margaret P. Hannay (2010); Oxford DNB entry under “Wroth [née Sidney], Mary.” Portraits: group portrait by Marcus Gheerearts the younger, 1596; portrait by Marcus Gheerearts the younger, c. 1620; portrait attributed to John de Critz, c.1620.
see SARAH BLOUNT
FRANÇISCA de SILVA y RIBERA (c.1450-August 2, 1534)
A Doña Françisca de Silva is named in the account book of Isabella of Castile for 1477-1504 and it is probably the same woman who was part of Catherine of Aragon's household when she first came to England to marry Arthur Tudor in 1501. One of Doña Françisca's sons was also part of that household. It seems likely that this woman was the widow of Honorato de Mendoza y Manrique, Señor de la Parrilla (d. c. 1490). She was the daughter of Juan de Silva, count of Cifuentes (1399-October 6, 1464) and his second wife, Iñez de Ribera. Françisca and Honorato had nine children: Iñez, Juan, Rodrigo, Pedro, Diego (d.1542), Garcia, Francisco, Maria, and Teresa. It is unclear when Françisca returned to Spain, but she was not with Catherine when she became queen in 1509. Françisca died in Cuenca de Campos, Valladolid, in present-day Spain.
see MARGARET STARKEY
see ANNE DIGBY
see CATHERINE CHETWODE
SKEFFINGTON (d. November 19,
Elizabeth Skeffington was the daughter of Sir John Skeffington of London (c.1485-July 10, 1525) and Elizabeth Peche (d.1549). Her father was a merchant tailor of Fisherwick in Lichfield St. Michael. After she was widowed, Elizabeth Peche married Sir John Dauncey, but the marriage apparently ended in divorce. Elizabeth Skeffington married Sir George Griffith of Wichnor in Tatenhill, Staffordshire (1511-1559), by whom she had a son, Walter (1535-1574) and three daughters. By the spring of 1540, Griffith had abandoned his wife for his mistress. Both Lord Cromwell and Bishop Rowland Lee took him to task for this action and Cromwell ordered him to either take Elizabeth back or pay her jointure. Since he was unable to afford the second choice, he opted for the first.
see MARGARET STANHOPE
ALICE SKELLING (d.1503+)
In 1503, Alice was in the household of Elizabeth of York and paid £5 /year.
MARGERY SKELTON (x.1574) (maiden name unknown)
Margery Skelton was a local healer (or white witch) in Little Wakering, Essex, where she lived with her husband, William, a laborer. In 1566, she was called to testify for the prosecution in a case against several women accused of witchcraft. On July 29, 1571, however, she was the one indicted at Barley (with her husband) on the charge that she had bewitched a child aged one and a half named Agnes Collen, daughter of William Collen. The child "languished a long time" before dying. They were also accused of bewitching John Churcheman of Barley, who died at once. Another indictment, this one against "Margery Skelton, spinster" (spinster was probably intend as her profession rather than her marital status) accused her of bewitching Phyllis Pyckett, daughter of Richard Pyckett, yeoman. This child languished until October 20, 1571 and then died. William was also accused of bewitching another girl. Margery pled not guilty but was convicted at the assizes in Chelmsford on March 2, 1573/4 and hanged.
JANE SKENNARD (d.1539)
Jane Skennard was the daughter of Henry Skennard, Skineardon, Skenard, or Skynnerton of Aldington, Northamptonshire and Margaret Harwedon or Harowdon. She married Sir Richard Knightley of Fawsley, Northamptonshire (c.1500-December 8, 1534). Their twelve children included Richard (d. March 30, 1537/8), Thomas (d. October 18, 1516), Sir Edmond (d. September 12, 1542 or 1543), John, Sir Valentine (d.1566), and Susan (d.1549+). Jane was sole executor of her husband's will and responsible for their tomb and a window containing a dedication. As a widow, she offered Thomas Cromwell the mastership of the game in her park and sent him a horse in an effort to gain favor. Portrait: alabaster effigy in St. Mary the Virgin Church, Fawsley with her family badge of the hawk's lure but no life dates. In 2008, the tomb was vandalized and the effigy of Sir Richard was damaged. The cost of repairs was estimated at £1000.
see KATHERINE STYLES
see ALICE POYNTZ
see MARGARET SAUNDERS
BRIDGET SKIPWITH (d. January 26, 1587/8)
Bridget Skipwith was the daughter of Sir William Skipwith of South Ormesby, Lincolnshire (d.1586) and Elizabeth Page (1516-August 1573). Her mother had been one of Kathryn Parr’s chamberers. Bridget was one of Elizabeth Tudor's attendants when John Harington wrote his sonnet in praise of her six gentlewomen. Bridget's stanza is as follows: "If Skypwith should escape/Without her gift most rare/Dyana wold me hate/and fill my Life with care/syns in her Temple chaste/full highe uppon the wall/Her bowe thear hangith fast/unbroke and ever shall." Bridget continued in Elizabeth's service as a maid of the Privy Chamber after she became queen. She married Brian Cave of Ingarsby, Leicestershire (d. September 12, 1592) but all his children seem to have been with his first wife, Margaret Throckmorton. Bridget did not leave the queen’s service until after 1584 and may have remained in the Privy Chamber until her death.
CATHERINE SKIPWITH (c.1484-c.1575)
Catherine Skipwith was the daughter of John Skipwith/Skipworth of South Ormesby, Lincolnshire (c.1460-January 5, 1517/18) and Catherine Fitzwilliam (d.1502+). In 1515, she married Sir Thomas Heneage of Hainton, Lincolnshire (c.1480-August 21, 1553), a gentleman pensioner. They had only one child, Elizabeth (1518-December 1, 1555). Catherine rode in the funeral procession of Queen Jane Seymour and was a gentlewoman in attendance on Queen Anne of Cleves in January 1540 and later served in the household of Catherine Howard. In his will in September 1542, her cousin, William Fitzwilliam, earl of Southampton, discharged her debt to him of £20. Catherine's will was proved September 2, 1576. She was buried in the chancel of Hainton parish church. Portrait: memorial brass.
see JANE HALL
see MARGARET CAVE
MARGARET SKIPWITH or SKIPWORTH (1520+-May 6,1583)
Margaret Skipwith was the daughter of Sir William Skipwith of Kettleby and South Ormsby, Lincolnshire (c.1487-July 7, 1547) and Alice Dymoke (d.June 29,1550). In 1538, when Henry VIII was a widower looking for a foreign bride, Margaret Skipwith was rumored to be his mistress. In April 1539, she married George, Lord Talboys (1523-September 1540), son of King Henry's former mistress, Elizabeth Blount. She was at court regularly in 1538, 1540, and 1541, when her name appears in royal household expenses and after she was widowed she was granted the wardship of a son of Anthony Tottoft. In 1546, Sir Peter Carew (1514-November 27, 1575) asked King Henry's help in persuading Margaret to marry him. At first the king was unwilling to help, but later changed his mind and wrote to Margaret on Sir Peter's behalf. They were married on February 20, 1547, the same day Edward VI was crowned king. Sir Peter participated in the tournaments celebrating the coronation. Margaret, who continued to be called Lady Talboys, spent most of the next few years in Lincolnshire, where she owned eight manors. Carew, who was sheriff of Devon, divided his time between the two counties. In December 1552, he owed the Crown £2100. When Mary Tudor became queen, Carew was one of the leaders in Wyatt's Rebellion and went into exile when the uprising failed. The story goes that Margaret dreamed her husband slipped while boarding the ship on which he was to escape and drowned. In fact, although he did slip, he was rescued. Carew's lands were forfeit to the Crown but his moveable property was sold back to Margaret in June 1554. She was a tireless campaigner on her husband's behalf. She petitioned Queen Mary and King Philip, asking permission to write to her husband and sent him "material relief." On September 17, 1554, she sent "an ambling grey gelding" worth 10s. to Sir William Petre, a member of the Privy Council. Five days later, she was called before the Privy Council and told she could correspond with Sir Peter and, one time only, send him money. She wisely demanded a written copy of the royal answer to her petition. It is at about this time that Queen Mary is said to have called her "a good and loving wife." Margaret continued to be her husband's advocate, seeking a pardon for him from the queen. Meanwhile, Sir Peter, who had gone as far as Venice, returned to England in secret in April of 1555. That autumn, Margaret journeyed to Brussels to plead with King Philip for permission for Sir Peter to return to England permanently. She carried a letter from her husband, who was then in Strasbourg. On November 24, 1555, Queen Mary agreed to pardon Carew. Carew, then in Antwerp, reached Brussels by mid-December. The pardon was officially issued on December 9, 1555 but copies did not reach Brussels until March 15, 1556. Margaret, who was still there, with her husband, then needed a pardon of her own before she could return to England, since she had remained out of the country longer than her license to travel allowed. She returned home ahead of her husband, who was still on the Continent in May. On May 15, 1556, he was arrested, in spite of the pardon, and for two weeks his whereabouts were unknown. On June 1, he was in the Tower of London. It is possible this was a ruse to cover up the fact that he betrayed some of his friends in return for the pardon, but if so, Margaret was not told. She once again worked diligently on her husband's behalf and on July 7 he was given better accommodations and allowed conjugal visits. Margaret spent that summer campaigning for his release. Finally, in return for the settlement of old debts, Carew was released on October 19, 1556. He received a regrant of some of the lands that had been forfeit to the Crown and others were granted in reversion, but he still owed the Crown £820. The eight manors Carew and his wife held in Lincolnshire plus two in Somersetshire yielded a yearly rent of £133 6s. 8d. Under Elizabeth Tudor, Carew spent much of his time in Ireland. He sent for Margaret to join him there in March 1569, but she lived primarily in Lincolnshire and at Mohuns Ottery in Devon and was not with Sir Peter when he died at Ross en route to Cork. He was buried in Waterford, although he has a monument in Exeter Cathedral. His will was written July 4, 1574, naming Margaret executrix, but she declined to serve in this capacity. In 1579, she married her third husband, Sir John Clifton of Barrington, Somerset (c.1541-c.1593). She had no children by any of her husbands. When she died, most of Sir Peter's debts were still outstanding.
see ANNE PEACOCK
see ALICE FITZGERALD; ELIZABETH STUCLEY
see MARGARET PHESANT
MARY SLANEY (1560-April 26, 1623)
Mary Slaney was the daughter of Sir Stephen Slaney (1524-December 27, 1608) and Margaret Phesant (Fesant; Pheasant) (d.1618). Slaney was Lord Mayor of London in 1595 and a member of the Skinner’s Company. Mary married another skinner, Richard Bradgate (d.1589), from whom she inherited an annuity of £60. Her second husband was Sir Humphrey Weld (1547-November 29,1610), a member of the Grocer’s Company who had a house in Allhallows Lane by the Standard in Cheapside. In 1608, they moved into a mansion in St. Olave Jewry. Mary inherited, on condition that she not remarry, the bulk of his considerable estate and the responsibility for raising her stepchildren, Joane (1579-1618), John (1582-1623), and Anne (b.1584). She had no children of her own. Her contributions to charity were generous, both in life and in her will, which also made provision for a funeral that cost £1200, a tenth of the amount of her cash bequests. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Weld [née Slaney], Mary."
SLIGHFIELD (d. 1546+)
Elizabeth Slighfield was the sister of Henry and Walter Slighfield, probably of Peckham, Kent. She married Robert Huicke (Huike/Hewyke/Hewicke) (d. September 6, 1580), royal physician to Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Queen Elizabeth. He also attended Queen Katherine Parr. "A relative of Dr. Huicke" was a maid of honor to Queen Katherine. Elizabeth may also have been part of the royal household. In early 1546, Huicke tried to divorce Elizabeth on the grounds that she was an "ill woman," which may mean he doubted he was the father of the daughter, Anne (c.1546-1580+), born to her around that time. When the judge, John Croke, found in her favor, Huicke appealed to the Privy Council. Both parties testified at Greenwich on May 11 and 12, 1546, after which the consensus was that Huicke had exhibited "crueltie and circumvencion" for "little cause" on the part of his wife. The divorce was denied. This should have surprised no one. Divorce at this time was all but impossible to obtain, and even when a divorce was granted, remarriage was not permitted while the first spouse still lived. In that same year, 1546, Dr. William Huicke, "a kinsman of Dr. Robert Huicke," was arrested as a heretic, but this does not seem to have affected Robert's position at court. Shortly after King Henry VIII died, a commission under Archbishop Cranmer reconsidered Huicke's request for a divorce. According to the entry in The History of Parliament, The House of Commons 1509-1558, the results are unknown but it is possible that Elizabeth and Huicke were reconciled. His daughter Atalanta was born in 1562. It is also possible that Elizabeth had died by 1562 and he had remarried, but if so there is no record of this second marriage. He did marry again in 1575, by a license dated November 2, this time to Mary Woodcocke of London. In his will, dated August 21, 1580, Huicke divided his movable goods between his wife and a third daughter, Elizabeth, who was evidently old enough by that time to be named an executrix and therefore also, probably, the daughter of Elizabeth Slighfield. Huicke left his lands to Atalanta, who was married to William Chetwynd. Anne Huicke was still alive, but was not mentioned in the will.
see MARY PERCY
see ALICE HYDE
ELIZABETH SMART (d.1628+)
Elizabeth Smart was the only daughter and heir of Henry Smart of London. She inherited twelve houses in Helmet Court, Fleet Street (some accounts say on the Strand) and other property in the Savoy. She had to sue the two overseers of his will over her inheritance. On October 24, 1596, at St. Lawrence Poultney, she married Henry Condell, an actor. They had nine children, most of whom died young. All were baptized at St. Mary Aldermanbury. The first, unnamed, was buried October 26, 1599. The others were Elizabeth (1598-April 1599), Anne (1601-1610), Richard, Elizabeth (d.1603), Elizabeth, Mary, Henry (May 1610-March 1629), William, and Edward (d.1614). In 1602, Henry and Elizabeth Condell bought property in St. Bride's, including the Queen's Head tavern in Fleet Street. They also had a country house in Fulham. As a widow, Elizabeth sold her twelve houses for £1450.
see AGNES CRANE
DOROTHY SMITH (1564-1639)
Dorothy Smith was the daughter of Humphrey (Ambrose) Smith or Smythe of Cheapside (d.1584), a silk merchant, and Johanna Cole (d.1601). One source says that Dorothy’s father was Queen Elizabeth’s silkman. He did deliver silk on one occasion. Royal silkwoman Alice Mountague was Alice Smythe, widow, before her 1562 marriage. It seems likely she was married to a relative of Humphrey’s, perhaps a brother. Dorothy Smith married four times and three of her daughters married peers. Her first husband was Benedict Barnham (1559-1598), a merchant and the benefactor of St. Alban’s Hall, Oxford. They had eight children, four of whom lived to adulthood: Alice (1588-June 29,1640; viscountess Verulam), Elizabeth (1591-c.1623; countess of Castlehaven), Dorothy (b.1595), and Bridget (b.1596). In November 1598, Dorothy married Sir John Pakington of Westwood, Worcestershire (1549-January 1625), nicknamed “Lusty Pakington” by Queen Elizabeth for his height (over 6’) and strength, by whom Dorothy had John (1600-October 1624), Anne (1598-1667; countess of Chesterfield), and Mary. In February 1607, John Chamberlain wrote in a letter that “Sir John Pakington and his little violent lady are parted on foul terms.” He does not give details. Shortly thereafter, Dorothy was at odds with her son-in-law, Francis Bacon (later viscount Verulam). She charged that he had forced her twelve-year-old daughter, Dorothy Barnham, into marriage with Sir John Constable. On June 21,1617, the Pakingtons were again mentioned in one of John Chamberlain’s letters, when he wrote of “great warres between Sir John and his lady.” She apparently made some kind of accusation against her husband that resulted in him being jailed for a time, but again details are lacking. The matter went to arbitration by the Lord Keeper. Unfortunately for Dorothy, the Lord Keeper was her estranged son-in-law, Francis Bacon. The decision went against her. After Pakington’s death, Dorothy quarreled with her daughter Anne’s husband, Sir Humphrey Ferrers (Anne’s second husband was Philip Stanhope, earl of Chesterfield), and with her daughter Mary’s husband, Sir Richard Brooke, over the administration of Pakington’s estate. It was transferred to the two men by February 1629. Soon after, Dorothy married Robert Needham, 1st viscount Kilmorey of Shavington, Shropshire (c.1565-November 1631), as his fourth wife. After his death, she wed Thomas Erskine, 1st earl of Killie (d. June 12, 1639). Portrait: companion piece with that of Sir John Pakington at Kentchurch Court (see Country Life 22, December 1966 p. 1689).
see DOROTHY CAVE; DOROTHY SEYMOUR
ELEANOR SMITH (c.1547-1596+)
Eleanor Smith was the daughter and heir of Bernard Smith of Totnes, Devonshire (d. July 16, 1591), who was mayor of Totnes in 1549/50. She was a heiress much sought after in marriage. Her first husband was John Charles of Tavistock (d. August 17, 1568). On January 30, 1570, she married Sir John Fulford of Fulford, Devonshire (1524/5-August 23, 1580) as his second wife. He was one of the wealthiest men in Devon and after their marriage he completed the rebuilding of Fulford. They had no children. Her third husband was John Wray or Wrey of Trebigh, Cornwall (1566-1596). He died in Spain. She then married, in 1596, Ambrose Bellott of Downton, Devonshire (c.1561-1637).
see ELEANOR HASELRIGGE
see FRANCES BRYDGES
see GILLES MOWBRAY
see JOHANNA COLE
see PHILIPPA WILFORD
see URSULA LUSON
ANNE SMYTH (d.1575)
Anne Smyth was the daughter of Robert Smyth of London. She married twice, first to Robert Paget or Pagett of London, by whom she had two children, William and Grace. Her second husband was Sir John Yorke of York (d.1569), an official of the mint until 1553 and later a merchant adventurer. From 1546, the family lived in St. Stephen Walbrook, London. Their children were Peter (1525-1589), Edmund, Edward (d.1622), Rowland (d.1588), Anne (d.1600+), Elizabeth, William, Henry, Jane, and possibly others who died young. Her son Edward was friendly with Edward de Vere, 17th earl of Oxford and it was at Lady Yorke's house in Walbrook that the two young men stayed before departing for the Continent in 1574. She also had a house in Pancake Lane, London. Anne made her will on August 9, 1575 and it was proved December 2, 1575. Among other bequests, she left £20 to her maid, Ellen, to be paid upon Ellen's marriage. Anne was buried August 21, 1575 at St. Stephen Walbrook. For her will and her husband's, see www.oxford-shakespeare.com.
see BRIDGET LYTE
see DOROTHY HOPTON
see ELIZABETH GORGES
see FRANCES ROGERS
see ALICE JUDDE; ALICE MOUNTAGUE
JOAN SMYTHE (1560-1622)
Joan Smythe was the daughter of Thomas "Customer" Smythe (1522-June 7, 1591) and Alice Judde (c.1533-1593). On December 22, 1578, she married Thomas Fanshawe of Ware Park, Hertfordshire (1533-1600). His son, Henry (1569-1616) later married her younger sister, Elizabeth (1572-1631). She had eight children. Those who survived to adulthood were Thomas, William, Alice, and Katherine. Portrait: by Cornelius Ketel, 1579.
KATHERINE SMYTHE (1561-1616)
Katherine Smythe was the daughter of Thomas "Customer" Smythe (1522-June 7, 1591), collector of customs duties for the port of London, and Alice Judde (c.1533-1593). In about 1578, she married Rowland Hayward (d. December 5, 1593), a clothworker who was Lord Mayor of London in 1590. His mansion was King's Place in Hackney, later sold to the countess of Oxford. Their children were George (March 10, 1587-July 1615), John (c.1591-April 11, 1636), Alice, Katherine, Mary (d.1662), and Anne and two children who died as infants. Hayward's will, dated November 17, 1592 and proved March 4, 1595, can be found at www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Katherine's second husband was Sir John Scott of Nettlestead, Kent (1570-December 28, 1616), to whom she was married c.1600 as his second wife. Some genealogies say she also married Sir Richard Sandys, but this seems to have been her daughter, Katherine Hayward, who was first married to Richard Scott, son of Sir Thomas. Portrait: possibly portrait by Cornelius Ketel 1579; monument in St. Mary the Virgin, Nettlestead, Kent. A grant from the Rochester Bridge Trust in 2010 paved the way for restoration of this monument at an estimated cost of £20,000. That there is a child shown kneeling behind her suggests that she had a child by Sir John Scott.
see SARAH BLOUNT
ANNE SNAGGE (d.1606+)
Anne Snagge was the daughter of Thomas Snagge of Letchworth, Hertfordshire (d.1571) and Elizabeth or Ellen Calton. She married a man named Dallison who had died before 1605, when Anne was named sole executor for her brother, Robert Snagge. He left her his manor house near Hitchen, Hertfordshire and land in Letchworth, along with instructions to bury him "in a comely manner." His will was proved May 14, 1606. It is likely that Anne was married to Edward Dallison (d.1589). His brass in Cransley, Northamptonshire contains his effigy along with that of his wife, Anne Snagge.
see HELENA VON SNAKENBORG
HELEN or ELEN SNAWE
or SNOW (d.1539+)
Helen Snawe was one of nineteen nuns at Elstow, near Bedford, in 1529 and a troublemaker. When Abbess Agnes Gascoigne died in July of that year, Helen was subsacrist. In the voting for a new abbess, she received two votes, primarily because two of the nuns wished to avoid voting for the other's candidate. Helen herself, and most of the other nuns, voted for Elizabeth Boifeld or Boyvill. The older nuns blamed the young nuns, Helen among them, for this result. Helen was then one of two proctors chosen to seek confirmation of Elizabeth's election from the bishop. Fuller details of the political machinations may be found on pp. 46-47 of Eileen Power's Medieval English Nunneries. In 1530, the bishop suspended the abbess and deprived the prioress, Dame Anne Wake, of her post after his August visitation. He appointed Helen Snawe in her place. When her election was announced, however, eight nuns and the sub-prioress rose up in a body and left the chapter house in protest. The examinations of the nuns by the vicar general are reported in Power's book (pp. 48-51) but despite their complaints, including the implication that Elizabeth Boifeld's election was rigged, the nuns were enjoined to be obedient to their abbess and prioress. Further protests were quelled by the threat of excommunication. In 1537, there was more trouble. The nuns at Elstow had to give up their "households"—the places within the abbey where they entertained friends. They were also required to stop their "little parties" in Bedford. When Elstow was dissolved on August 26, 1539, there were twenty-three nuns in residence. The abbess received a pension of £50, Helen Snawe received £4, and the former prioress, Dame Anne Wake, was granted 66s. 8d.
text ©2008-16 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)