Kathy Lynn Emerson
to update and correct
her very out-of-date
Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984)
NOTE: this document exists only in electronic format
and is ©2008-14 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)
see ANNE DACRES
Jane Packington was the daughter of Humphrey Packington (1502-1556), a mercer, and Elizabeth Harding (d. September 27, 1563). On January 15, 1541 at St. Michael Bassishaw, London, Jane married Humphrey Baskerville or Baskerfield of Wolverley, Worcestershire (d. March 1564), a mercer and alderman. Their children, baptized between 1544 and 1561, were Elizabeth, Humphrey, Angelica, Sarah, Mary, Richard, Anne (March 10, 1559-May 14, 1622), and Martha. Another child was born posthumously. Baskerville left Jane a very wealthy widow. In his will, written September 1, 1563, he also appointed guardians from among his fellow mercers and relatives for his minor children. Anne and Martha were to go to Richard Hollyman, Humphrey to Thomas Heaton, Angell to William Leonard, Richard to John Jackson, and Sarah to Harry Hungate, who was married to Elizabeth and received £200 as her dowry. Jane was to bring up "the childe she nowe goeth withall." On June 29, 1564 at St. Peter West Cheap, Jane took as her second husband Lionel Duckett (1511-August 1587), another mercer, whose family came from Flintham, Nottinghamshire. They had a son, Thomas (1566-c.1608), who was his father's heir, the only child of a first marriage having died young. He was out of favor at the time his father died, however, for marrying against his wishes. Lionel Duckett was Lord Mayor of London in 1572-3. Jane died between September 8, 1589 and February 4, 1590.
see KATHERINE DALLAM
see ELIZABETH BOURCHIER
see EULALIA GLANFIELD
see CHRISTINE HOGG
MARIE PAGES (c. 1567-1587+)
Marie Pages was the eldest daughter of Sebastian Pages and Christine Hogg, loyal servants of Mary Queen of Scots. She entered Mary's household herself as a chamberwoman in 1573, when she was no more than five years old. After Mary was executed in 1587, her ladies, including Marie and her mother, were held at Fotheringay until July 30, when they were taken to Peterborough Cathedral for Mary's funeral. It was September before they were finally released and allowed to leave England. Mary had left Marie Pages 2000 francs in her will and asked the duchess of Guise to take her into her household in France, but it is uncertain what actually became of her.
see ANNE SMYTH
ANNE PAGET (c.1540-c.1590-4)
Anne Paget was the daughter of William, 1st baron Paget of Beaudesert (1505-June 9, 1563) and Anne Preston (c.1510-February 1587). She married Sir Henry Lee (c.1533-February 12, 1611) in 1560. They had three children, John, Henry, and Mary, all of whom seem to have died young. There is a story that Anne fostered an illegitimate child borne by Lettice Knollys, countess of Essex, to Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, before their marriage. Lettice was a kinswoman of the Lee family through her grandmother, who was married to both a Lee and a Knollys. Anne was caused considerable embarrassment by her brother, Thomas, third baron Paget, who went into exile in Paris following the discovery of the Throckmorton conspiracy in 1583/4. Paget wrote to his mother once he arrived there and included a note to his sister. He asked her, probably because her husband was in favor at court, to make arrangements for his servants to join him in exile and to take care of his son and heir, William Paget (1572-1629). Queen Elizabeth visited the Sir Henry Lee at Quarendon, Buckinghamshire in the Vale of Aylesbury for two days in August 1592. Most online sources give Anne's date of death as 1590, but I have also seen 1594, which would mean she was still alive at that time. She was also doubtless aware that her husband had taken a mistress, the notorious Ann Vavasour. Lady Lee was buried at Aylesbury.
ANNE PAGET (d.1607)
Anne Paget was the daughter of Robert Paget (d. January 1541/2), alderman of London and sheriff in 1536, and Grace Farringdon. In July 1542, her mother married Sir William Sharington of Lacock Abbey (c.1495-1553) as his third wife. In May 1548, Anne married Sir William's younger brother and heir, Sir Henry Sharington (d.1581). This leads to considerable confusion over which one of them is the Lady Sharington portrayed by Hans Holbein. Holbein also drew Sir William, and it would be logical that he’d have done matching portraits of husband and wife. See GRACE FARRINGDON. Anne and Sir Henry had four children, Ursula (d.1576), Grace (c.1552-1620), William (d.yng), and Olive. Portrait: Holbein sketch engraved by GS and JG Facius; possible portrait by the Master of the Countess of Warwick, 1575 (now at Lacock).
AUDREY PAGET (c. 1535-1587)
Audrey (or Ethelreda) Paget was the eldest daughter of William, 1st baron Paget of Beaudesert (1505-June 9, 1563) and Anne Preston (c.1510-February 1587). She married Sir Christopher Alleyn of Ightham Mote, Kent and West Drayton, Middlesex (d. February 14, 1586), an illegitimate son of Sir John Allyn, Lord Mayor of London, who nevertheless inherited great wealth from his father. They had six sons and two daughters, including Charles. Although he was known to keep "a vile, papistical house," he was left in peace until September 1585 when a messenger from his brother-in-law, Lord Paget, came to the house and left with young Charles. The house was subsequently searched, especially Lady Alleyn’s chamber, and the members of the household were questioned. Lady Alleyn was listed as a recusant in 1587.
see BRIDGET MILL
see CATHERINE KNYVETT
DOWSABELL PAGET (c.1559-1602)
Dowsabell Paget was the only child of James Paget of Grove Place, Nursling, Hampshire, by his second of three wives. On December 16, 1574, Lord Keeper Sir Nicholas Bacon signed an agreement with Paget for the marriage of Dowsabell and his eldest son, Anthony Bacon. Anthony was sixteen and Dowsabell a little younger. The marriage was to take place in May 1575. They would have an allowance of £75/year for the first three years, after which, from the Lord Keeper, there would be an estate worth £100/year together with leases worth an equal amount per annum. In addition, after the death of Lady Bacon, they would have a further £300/year from her jointure. Bacon would pay Paget £565 and in return Paget would guarantee that after his death and that of his wife, the couple would have a guaranteed income of £314/year. Paget promptly added an heraldic shield to the gallery of Grove Place, showing the arms of his future son-in-law, but the marriage never took place. Anthony Bacon, in fact, never married. If the wedding had gone forward, the couple would never have received the £300 from the jointure—Lady Bacon (Anne Cooke) outlived them both. Dowsabell, meanwhile, went on to marry twice. Her first husband was William Paulet of Paultons, Eling, Hampshire, a grandson of his namesake, the marquis of Winchester. Their children were Chediock, Thomas, Edward, John, Elizabeth, Dowsabel, Catherine, and William. Her second husband was John More of North Baddesley, Hampshire (c.1561-August 15, 1620), by whom she had four sons and two daughters.
see GRACE FARRINGDON
GRISEL or GRISELDA
PAGET (1542-July 21, 1600)
Grisel or Griselda Paget was the seventh daughter of William Paget, 1st baron Paget of Beaudesert (1505-June 9, 1563) and Anne Preston (c.1510-February 1587). She was christened on December 3, 1542 in St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermansbury, London. In about 1565 she married, as his second wife, Thomas Rivett or Revet of Chippenham, Cambrideshire (1519-October 1582), a wealthy London mercer. They had one child, Anne (1568-November 27, 1615). By his first marriage, to Alice Cotton (1537-1564), Rivett already had three daughters, Mirabel (1561-July 15, 1593), Isabel (1563-d.yng), and Alice (1564-1582+). On August 30, 1578, Queen Elizabeth visited the Rivetts at Chippenham, but Thomas was not knighted until 1580. As Grisel's husband lay dying, plans were being made for her daughter to marry one of Lord Burghley's grandsons. The account in Charlotte Merton's The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth indicates that young Anne's primary appeal was her expected income—£1000 a year. She was also a good age to marry, almost fourteen in that October of 1582. One of Sir Francis Knollys' younger sons was also interested in marrying Anne. Grisel seemed to support Knollys, at the queen's request, but Anne herself rejected the match. The queen then sent Thomas Wilkes to investigate. Wilkes, who thought Grisel had influenced her daughter to refuse, suggested that Anne come to court. Grisel refused to let her daughter go and, rather surprisingly, was allowed to keep Anne at home. Merton suggests Grisel's many influential relatives at court swayed the queen and goes on to say that young Knollys shifted his affections to Anne's half sister Alice. Alice wouldn’t marry him either. On November 11, 1583 in St. Dunstan, Stepney, Grisel remarried, taking as her second husband Sir William Waldegrave of Smallbridge Hall, Bures St. Mary, Suffolk (1533-August 17, 1613). She was his second wife. Meanwhile, Lord North was the guardian of the two unmarried Rivett daughters, half sisters Alice and Anne. In 1586, Anne married Henry, 5th baron Windsor. Grisel died at Smallbridge. Portrait: effigy with Anne Cotton, Rivett's first wife, on Rivett monument in St. Margaret's Church, Chippenham.
see LETTICE KNOLLYS
see NAZARET NEWTON
PACKENHAM or PAGENHAM (d. October
Anne Pakenham was the daughter of Sir Hugh Pakenham and Anne Clement. Her first husband, Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam (c.1474-September 9, 1513), was killed at Flodden. Their children were Alice (d.1535/6), Margaret (d. February 7, 1557), William (c.1510-January 17, 1515+), and John (c.1512-August 28, 1513+). In 1517 she married Sir William Sidney (1482-1554), who later became Prince Edward’s chamberlain and steward. Anne was the prince’s governess. Her daughters Mabel and Elizabeth were in Princess Mary’s household. Her other children were Mary (d.1542), Anne or Agnes (1525-1602), Henry (July 20,1529-May 5,1586), Frances (c.1531-March 9,1589), Lucy (b. 1538), and a son and daughter who died young.
CONSTANCE PAKENHAM (c.1505-September 1570)
Constance Pakenham was the daughter and coheiress of Sir Edmund Pakenham of Lordington, Sussex (1480-1528) and a daughter of John Compton. Some sources give Sir John Pakenham as her father, but he was her grandfather. She married Sir Geoffrey Pole (1502-1558) before her father's death and they lived at Lordlington, which they inherited. Geoffrey was heavily in debt and did not get along with his neighbors in the West Sussex parish of Racton. In 1529, he and Constance's mother, together with Constance's brother-in-law, Edmund Marvyn, were accused of conspiring together in a land dispute. On May 1, 1531, the hedge Constance and Geoffrey had used to enclose part of a wood was pulled down on orders from the 11th earl of Arundel. By 1532, Pole was beginning to be embroiled in treason and on August 29, 1538, he was arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London. The primary charge was that he wrote letters to his brother, Reginald Cardinal Pole, an acknowledged traitor by then living abroad. These had not been vetted by the Crown, raising suspicions of a plot against the king. Constance was also examined and was with Geoffrey in the Tower for a time. When she realized how indiscreet her husband had been, she warned her brother-in-law, Lord Montagu, that he was in danger. The warning came too late. The entire Pole family was implicated in treason. Geoffrey Pole was tried on December 4, 1538 and condemned, as were his brother and others. After he'd twice tried to take his own life, he was pardoned on January 4, 1539. It was said that it was Constance's plea that her husband was so ill as to be as good as dead that won his release, but the more prevalent rumor was that he was pardoned because he'd provided evidence against the rest of his family. He was back in Sussex by April 1539, when Constance was involved in a lawsuit and he wrote to Thomas Cromwell to assist her, but in September 1540, he was again in prison, this time in the Fleet, on a charge of assault. Once again, he was pardoned, but he was banished from court. Once again, Constance's intercession was credited with getting him out of jail. According to some accounts, after his mother, the countess of Salisbury, was executed on May 27, 1541, Pole fled the country, leaving his wife and children behind, and remained in exile, insane with guilt, for the rest of his life. The History of Parliament contradicts this, stating that he and his wife were granted Grandisons Manor in Kent in May 1543. He did leave England in 1548, under King Edward VI, but he returned during the reign of Mary Tudor. Constance remained in England and, possibly because she shared a great-grandfather with John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, was treated with kindness. In December 1552, Geoffrey wrote to his wife that he pined for her after four years of separation. After his return to England, he faced death threats from his nephew, Edward Courtenay, earl of Devon, who blamed him for his father's death. Constance and Geoffrey had eleven children, including Katherine (d. September 1598+), Arthur (1531-1570), Edmund (1541-August 12, 1570), Anne, Thomas (d.1570), Geoffrey (1546-March 9, 1591), Henry, Elizabeth, Mary (d.1571), Margaret, and Anne. Arthur and Edmund, who had inherited their father's royal blood, were sent to the Tower for treason in 1562 and died there. Catherine made her will in 1570, asking to be buried beside her husband in the church of Stoughton, near Chichester in Sussex.
see BRIDGET KINGSMILL
CATHERINE PAKINGTON (1556-1622)
Catherine Pakington was the daughter of Sir Thomas Pakington of Aylesbury, Berkshire (c.1520-June 2, 1571) and Dorothy Kytson (1531-May 2, 1577). She married first, in 1577, John Davy of Turville, Buckinghamshire (1552-1589) (the History of Parliament entry for her second husband says he was John Davy of West Harnham), then, in 1590, Jasper More or Moore of Heytesbury, Wiltshire (1552-March 1609), who was knighted in 1603. The History of Parliament says they married c. 1583. In his 1597 will, More left her clothing, household goods, including those given her by her first husband, grain in the barms at Harnham parsonage, and a coach and two horses. A 1606 codicil left her all the money in the house at the time of his death plus £200. A 1609 codicil changed the £200 to £400 plus the lease of West Harnham. On December 8, 1610 in St. Margaret’s Westminster, as his third wife, she married Richard Mompesson of Salisbury, Wiltshire and Teddington (1548-1627). A letter from Matthew Nicholas to Edward Nicholas found in the Calendar of State Papers for May 14, 1622 says “Lady Mompesson is dead and has left Edward Nicholas and his father trustees to her strange will, made much to the prejudice of her husband.” Portrait: effigy on Mompesson tomb.
see DOROTHY KYTSON; DOROTHY SMITH
see ANNA HOOFTMAN
ELIANOR de la PALMA (d.1537+)
Elianor de la Palma was the wife of Diego Sanchez, a Spaniard living in London in the parish of St. Benet when he made his will on April 4, 1537. He named Elianor his executor, but made provision for her to receive help from John Deez, a Portuguese gentleman living in London, because Elianor was "old and a stranger and cannot understand the speech of the country." She was to receive the bulk of his estate but there were provisions in the will which cast an interesting light on their relationship. First, the residual heir was the lawfully begotten son, John Sanchez. However, there was another heir, also named John Sanchez, "my younger son and bastard," who was to receive a third of the goods after Elianor died. Further, Diego left his slave, Johan (Joan) to Elianor for two years, after which she was to be freed. As for the two "wynches" Diego had by Joan, Agnes and Mary, "the whiche be now present in my house," Elianor was to "kepe them with her in her poer and governaunce and bringe them up till they come to lawfull age and to fynde them all thinges necessary till they come to their lawfull tyme of maryage." Each was to have ten thousand marvades as a dowry and "household stuf." If one died, the other was to have her portion. If both died unmarried, the twenty thousand marvades was to stay with Elianor. "Marvades" probably referred to Spanish copper coins valued at about one sixth of a penny each. The will of Diego Sanchez can be found at http://www.british-history.ac.uk in London Consistory Court Wills 1492-1547. There is no notation as to when it was proved.
ALICE PALMER (d. November 1573)
Alice Palmer was the eldest daughter of John Palmer of Kentish Town, Middlesex. She married first William Stanford (also spelled Stamford) of Hadley, Middlesex (August 20, 1509-August 28, 1558), chief justice of the common pleas. Their children were Robert (1540-March 20, 1607), Thomas, William, Henry and Margaret (twins), Ralph (who became a seminary priest), John, Catherine, Frances, Dorothy, and one other daughter. Stanford made his will on April 4, 1558. It mentions three daughters and five sons, names Alice executrix, and leaves her 200 marks worth of household goods. She already had a life interest in all his lands and tenements in London and Middlesex, including Hadley. Alice received the grant of her eldest son's wardship in April 1559. She married second Roger Carew (d.1590), the younger son of a Cornwall family. He held Hadley in the right of his wife until her death. They had one son, Henry Carew (c.1560-December 12, 1626), who was responsible for the monument in the church at Monken Hadley to himself and his mother. According to the inscription, Alice was buried on November 3, 1573.
see ALICE POYNTZ
see BLANCHE STANNEY
CATHERINE PALMER (c.1500-December 19,1576)
Catherine Palmer was the daughter of Sir Edward Palmer of Angmering, Sussex (c.1470-1516/17) and Alice Clement. She was a Bridgettine nun at Syon at Isleworth in the 1530s. When the monastery was dissolved on November 25, 1539, she received a pension of six pounds. It is unclear where she spent the next twelve years, during which she received her pension, but on June 24, 1550 she was the first of a group of Bridgettines to arrive in the Low Countries to join the Brigittine house of Maria Troon at Termonde, near Louvain, in Flanders. Cardinal Reginald Pole visited them there in November 1554. On March 1, 1557, twenty-one sisters and three brothers were officially reestablished back at Syon. Catherine Palmer was elected abbess on July 31, 1557. Unfortunately, with the accession of Elizabeth Tudor, they were once more forced into exile. Syon was dissolved by Parliament in May 1559 and Catherine Palmer and some of her sisters left England in the party of the departing ambassador from Spain, the count of Feria. They returned to Termonde until 1564, then moved first to Zurich Zee; then to Mishagen, near Antwerp (1568-1571); then to Mechelen, where a Calvinist mob sacked the convent on November 8, 1576. Pope Pius IV had issued a papal bull on July 7, 1563 to ask church leaders, particularly the Archbishop of Utrecht, to assist the nuns in exile from Syon Abbey, but after burying Catherine Palmer in Mechelen, the others moved on to France and then to Portugal, finally settling in Lisbon in 1594. They returned to England in two groups, one in 1809 and the other in 1861, and eventually established a permanent community, still extant, in Devon. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Palmer, Katherine." See also Mary C. Erler, Reading and Writing During the Dissolution: Monks, Friars, and Nuns 1530-1558, pp.121-123.
see ELEANOR BENLOWES
see ELIZABETH VERNEY
JANE PALMER (c.1565-before 1634)
Jane Palmer was the daughter of Sir Thomas Palmer of Wingham, Kent (1540-January 7, 1625) and Margaret Poley (c.1542-August 1625). She married first, possibly in 1598, William Meredith of Blackfriars, London, Stansty, Denbighshire, and Leeds, Kent (d.c.1604), who was knighted in 1603. Although she is sometimes listed as the mother of his daughter, Jane, it is more likely that all three of his children were the offspring of his first wife. Meredith, who was treasurer at war in the Low Countries from 1599 and spent much of his life abroad, was much older than Jane, since he was already active as a merchant in Antwerp before she was born. He wrote his will on July 6, 1603. He left his wife 1000 marks in ready money and the parsonage of Bassingbourne, Cambridgeshire for forty-five years with the remainder after her death to his son William. Also mentioned in the will are his daughters Anne and Jane. Her second husband was John Vaughan of Golden Grove, Carmarthenshire, Wales (c.1575-May 6, 1634), who was created baron Vaughan of Mullengar in 1621 and then earl of Carbery. He had two children by his first marriage but none by Jane. Most sources say she died before him, but a few online genealogies give her date of death, without attribution, as 1643. Portrait: unknown artist and date.
see KATHERINE STRADLING
see MARGARET POLEY
see ISABEL LINDLEY
FRANCES PALSGRAVE (c.1497-1532+?)
Frances Palsgrave (Palgrave/Pagrave) was the daughter of Henry Palsgrave of Little Pagrave, Norfolk (c.1470-October 1516) and Anne Glemham (d.1518+). Through her maternal grandmother, she was a cousin of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk and was a lady in waiting to Brandon’s wife, Mary Tudor, former queen of France. She married Sir William Pennington of Muncaster (1487-April 20, 1532) and had at least two children, Anne (c.1506-1544+) and William (1517-March 5, 1573). Frances's husband was a tenant of the duke of Suffolk, occupying the manor of Costessey, Norfolk. Sir Richard Southwell, a follower of the duke of Norfolk, together with twenty men, including two of his brothers, Robert and Anthony, killed Sir William Pennington in the sanctuary at Westminster Abbey. Details are frustratingly scarce, but Southwell and the others were pardoned. He was fined £1000. In lieu of payment, he ceded two manors, Coggeshall and Fillols Hall, Essex, to the king. He gained both wealth and prominence in the following years. Frances's fate is unknown.
see JOAN HOBY
ELIZABETH PARIS (d.March 31, 1591)
Elizabeth Paris was the daughter of Sir Philip Paris of Little Linton, Cambridgeshire (1492-March 4,1558) and Margaret Bowes (d.1551). In 1547, she married Sir Thomas Lovell (1526-April 23, 1567) of Barton Bendish and East Harling, Norfolk. Their children were Sir Thomas, Philip, Francis, Henry, Thomas the Younger, Robert, Edmund, Anne, Audrey, Catherine, and Ellen or Eleanor. In his will, dated December 1, 1566, Lovell left his wife all his land at Attleborough, Buckingham, and West Dereham, Norfolk; Burwell, Upware and Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire; and in Rutland and Kent for life. Elizabeth was the Lady Lovell arrested in 1585. She and her son Robert were released by the queen’s command with immunity from further prosecution. In 1588, Lady Lovell sent a midwife to christen the child of Francis Lovell of West Derham and although the authorities made stringent efforts to discover the midwife’s name, they still had not managed to identify her three years later. Elizabeth's will, dated December 28, 1590 and proved July 14, 1595 included a bequest to her daughter-in-law of household stuff delivered to her "before my going to prison." She was buried in East Harling, Norfolk.
see ELIZABETH JACKMAN
ELIZABETH PARKE (1544-September 15, 1567)
Although some genealogies say that Elizabeth Parke was the daughter of John Parke of Malmain, the inscription on her tomb identifies her as the daughter of Sir Richard Parke of Pluckley, Kent. She married John Roper (c.1534-August 30, 1618) in 1560 and was the mother of Christopher (c.1561-April 16, 1622), Elizabeth (1564-c.1625), and Jane (c.1564-1628). Portrait: effigy with her husband in Lynsted Church, Kent.
see ALICE LOVELL; ALICE ST. JOHN
ARABELLA PARKER (d.1520+) (maiden name unknown)
Arabella Parker is the name given by Hubert S. Burke in his Historical Portrait of the Tudor Dynasty, a four volume history published in 1879-83, to the royal mistress who allegedly replaced Elizabeth Blount in King Henry VIII's affections. Burke says Arabella was the wife of a London merchant but provides no other information and no source for his claim. Whether there ever was a real Arabella Parker or not remains conjectural. There was a Mistress Parker who participated in the revels of March 1522, but this is unlikely to have been a merchant's wife and was probably Jane Parker, later Lady Rochford, before her marriage to George Boleyn. A Margery Parker was one of Princess Mary's rockers in 1516 and later an Alice Parker was one of Mary's chamberers. For Margaret Parker, mistakenly identified as Madge Shelton by some, see her entry. Alison Weir, in Mary Boleyn also points out that Arabella/Arbella was a Scots name, not in common use in England.
ELIZABETH PARKER (d.1573+)
Elizabeth Parker was a young lady from a respectable Horrocksford family when she met Ralph Rishton of Ponthalgh, Lancashire (c.1518-1582+). According to an online biography of Rishton, after they had lived together for some time his father and her mother pushed for a marriage between them, even though Rishton had a wife still living. He sought a divorce on the grounds that this wife was insane. His petition was refused by Chancellor Bonner of Chester but since the Rishtons and Towneleys (the first wife’s family) were Catholic, he applied to the Lancashire representative of Pope Clement for a dispensation to divorce, who granted his request. Ralph and Elizabeth were married in Clitheroe Church. In about 1552, however, in spite of the fact that Ralph and Elizabeth by then had several children (they would have six sons in all, including Nicholas, Roger, William, Henry, and Geoffrey), they were ordered to separate by an ecclesiastical court of the Church of England. This body declared that Ralph was still married to Helen Towneley. His marriage to Elizabeth was illegal and his sons illegitimate. After Helen died, Ralph might have married Elizabeth, but he did not. In fact, from around 1550, he was involved with yet a third young gentlewoman, Anne Stanley of Cross Hall. In 1573, Elizabeth attempted to sue one of Ralph's tenants over her dower rights but the case went against her.
see ELIZABETH CALTHORPE; ELIZABETH STANLEY
FRANCES PARKER (c.1585-1654)
Frances Parker was the daughter of Edward Parker, 12th baron Morley (1551-April 1, 1618) and Elizabeth Stanley (1558-June 12, 1585). On July 6, 1607, she married Christopher Danby (1582-1624). He was supposed to receive a marriage portion of £1000 upon their marriage but the marriage settlement could not be agreed upon. Although they often lived apart, they did have a son, Thomas (1610-August 5, 1660), and a daughter, Katherine (February 24, 1611/12-1646). At one point, Danby accused Frances of adultery although, by 1617, it was generally believed that he was the one who had frequently been unfaithful to her. In matters of religion, Christopher conformed but Frances was convicted of recusancy.
see FRANCES BARLOW
see GRACE NEWPORT
see JANE MOORE
JANE PARKER (c.1505-x. February 13, 1542)
Jane Parker was the daughter of Henry Parker, 8th baron Morley (1476-November 25,1556) and Alice St. John (1486-1552/3) but she is best known as Lady Rochford, wife and then widow of George Boleyn (1503-1536), Queen Anne’s brother, to whom she was married in 1525. She gave damning evidence against her husband and sister-in-law and after their executions was able to return to court as a lady of the bedchamber. She also gave evidence to help King Henry VIII annul his marriage to Anne of Cleves, but during the tenure of Queen Catherine Howard, it was Jane who helped the young queen betray her husband. Just how involved Jane was, and whether she was the villainous creature history has painted her, are subject to much debate. Her own evidence in interrogations in 1541 is disjointed and contradictory and she is said to have run mad when she realized she would be executed along with the queen. It was a letter in Catherine Howard’s handwriting that condemned her. The queen wrote to Thomas Culpepper to “come when my Lady Rochford is here, for then I shall be at leisure to be your commandment.” The George Boleyn (d. 1603) who became dean of Litchfield is highly unlikely to have been either Jane’s son or her husband’s, since he is not mentioned in the will of Jane’s father-in-law, Thomas Boleyn. Biography: Julia Fox’s Jane Boleyn; Oxford DNB entry under "Boleyn [née Parker], Jane."
see MARGARET HARLESTONE
MARGARET PARKER (d.1558+)
Margaret Parker was the daughter of Henry Parker, Lord Morley (1476-November 27, 1556) and Alice St. John (1486-1552/3). Some sources say she was older than her sister Jane, Lady Rochford, but Jane's biographer, Julia Fox (Jane Boleyn) feels she was probably a year or two younger. She married Sir John Shelton (d. November 15, 1558) and was the mother of Sir Ralph (d.1580), Anne (c.1535-August 12, 1558), Alice (c.1540-October 4, 1605), Mary (c.1550-August 16, 1603), and Thomas (May 19, 1558-December 25, 1595). She is identified in some biographies of Anne Boleyn as the Madge Shelton who was briefly a royal mistress while Anne was queen, but I've seen nothing to indicate she was even at court at that time. See the entries for Margaret Shelton and Mary Shelton, Sir John's sisters, for more on Madge's identity. On Whit Sunday in June 1536, about three weeks after Anne was executed, Margaret Shelton was probably the daughter who went with her parents, Lord and Lady Morley, to visit Mary Tudor at Hunsdon. Margaret's mother-in-law, Lady Shelton, was in charge of the princess's household. Ms. Fox also cites records of gifts from Mary to Margaret of a frontlet worth eight shillings and £1 to the nurse and midwife at the christening of one of the Sheltons' children, but does not give a date.
MARY PARKER (c.1539-November 7, 1566?)
Mary Parker was the second daughter of Sir Henry Parker (c.1513-January 6, 1552) and Grace Newport (1515-c.1549). She is often confused with her niece, another Mary Parker, the daughter of Henry Parker, Lord Morley (1533-1577) and Elizabeth Stanley (d.1590). The Mary of this entry married Sir Edward Leventhorpe of Shingey Hall, Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire (c.1535-October 8, 1566) in 1560. Their children were John (1560-September 23, 1624), Thomas (baptized at Sawbridgeworth November 7, 1563), and Anne. The family was Catholic and Edward is said in some accounts to have spent most of his life abroad. He died in Rome. His will specified that marble slabs should be put over the graves of his father and his wife. Mary, however, still seems to have been living at the time. One genealogy site gives her date of death as November 7, 1566 (third birthday of her second son). The implication is that both Mary and her husband died in Rome, but on her memorial brass in St. Mary the Great, Sawbridgeworth, the inscription only states when her husband died . . . and gets it wrong, stating that he died in Rome in August 1566. Since the clothing is more typical of a later date (c.1595-1600), it seems logical that this brass was put in place long after 1566, possibly at the same time the brass for Edward's father was engraved at the end of the century. It is also possible that Mary outlived her husband by several decades. An argument against this explanation is the fact that her daughter, Anne, was brought up by her aunt, Lady Morley (Elizabeth Stanley).
MARY PARKER (d.1656+)
Mary Parker was the eldest daughter of Edward, 10th baron Morley (1555-April 11, 1618) and Elizabeth Stanley (d. June 12, 1585). In 1593, Mary married Thomas Habington (August 23, 1560-October 8, 1647), who spent the years 1586-92 in the Tower of London for his part in the Babington Conspiracy. In 1606, he again committed treason by hiding alleged conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot in the eleven secret chambers in his house in Hindlip, near Worcester. It has been suggested that Mary wrote the letter warning Lord Mounteagle, her brother, of the plot. This idea is strengthened by the fact that Habington was not executed, or imprisoned in the Tower, but only restricted to Worcestershire for the remainder of his life. On the other hand, on November 4, 1605, just before the plot came to light, Mary was fully occupied with giving birth to a son, William (November 5, 1605-1654). On January 18, 1606, she received word from a recusant friend that Hindlip was about to be raided. Habington had gone to Shropshire to execute a will but in the house with Mary were Anne Vaux, two priests, Henry Garnet and Edward Oldcorne, and Nicholas Owen, designer of priest holes. When Sir Henry Bromley and his men surrounded the house, these men, together with all Catholic papers, books, vestments, and so forth were hidden away. During the next week and more, until the two priests were finally found on January 27, 1606, they were given broth and wine through a reed in the masonry linked to Mary’s bedchamber. Habington arrived home. His wife refused to leave, rather vehemently from all accounts. Walls and floors were literally torn apart and one by one the men and objects hidden away were uncovered. The two women, Mary Habington and Anne Vaux, both the daughters of barons, were not arrested, but they followed the others to London, where Mary had a house in Fetter Lane. It is not clear if Mary had her infant son with her. Mary and Thomas Habington also had three daughters—Mary, Frances, and Elizabeth—and another son, Anthony (d.1649). In 1651, Hindlip was again plundered by soldiers. This time they stole money, jewels and plate belonging to Mary, who was by then a widow.
see PHILIPPA YORKE
see SUSANNA HORENBOULT
JENNET PARKINSON (d.1580+)
Jennet Parkinson was the daughter of John Parkinson of Whinney Clough. She married Cuthbert Hesketh of Whitehill, Lancashire (d.1629), a lawyer, by whom she had three
sons, Thomas, Bartholomew, and Gabriel, and six daughters. She was his first wife. His second was Anne Parkinson (d.1647), daughter of Edmund Parkinson. Portrait: 1580 by George Gower.
see LUCY WATTS
ANNE PARR (c.1515-February 20, 1552)
Anne Parr was the daughter of Sir Thomas Parr (1478-1517) and Maud Green (1492-December 1,1531). Her mother was a lady in waiting to Catherine of Aragon and Anne became a maid of honor to Queen Jane Seymour. In early 1538, Anne married William Herbert (c.1506-March 17,1570). She should not be confused with Lady Herbert of Troy (Blanche Milborne) who carried Elizabeth Tudor's train at the christening of Prince Edward, or Mrs. Fitzherbert, who was chief chamberer to Queen Jane and rode in her funeral cortege in 1537. Anne Parr was also in the cortege, but she was not yet Mrs. Herbert. As Lady Herbert, she was keeper of the queen’s jewels to Catherine Howard, although she left court briefly to give birth to her first child, Henry (d.January 19,1601), in 1540. She was back at court in time to attend the disgraced queen at Syon House and in the Tower. When her sister Katherine became Henry VIII’s sixth queen in 1543, Anne returned to court. In 1551, William Herbert was created earl of Pembroke. They had two more children, Edward (June 1544-1594) and Anne (1545-1593) and used Baynard’s Castle as their London residence. For the birth of her second son, Anne's sister loaned her the manor of Hanworth in Middlesex for her lying in. After the birth, Anne visited Lady Hertford, who had also just given birth, at Syon House near Richmond. In August, the queen sent a barge to bring Anne by river from Syon to Westminster. After Henry VIII's death, when the queen dowager's household was at Chelsea, both Anne and her son Edward were part of the household there. At the time of her death, Anne Parr was one of Princess Mary’s ladies. She died quite unexpectedly at Baynard's Castle and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral next to the tomb of John of Gaunt. Her memorial there reads: "a most faithful wife, a woman of the greatest piety and discretion." Portrait: portrait bust on one face of the 1540s porch at Wilton (now in Wilton garden); stained glass window; it is the opinion of Susan E. James, Katherine Parr’s biographer, that Anne is the subject of the “unidentified” lady in the Holbein sketch shown below; a portrait of Anne was part of the Pembroke collection in 1561.
see ANNE BOURCHIER
see ELIZABETH BROOKE
see HELENA VON SNAKENBORG
KATHERINE PARR (c.1512-September 5,1548)
Katherine Parr was the daughter of Thomas Parr (1478-1517) and Maud Greene (1492-December 1,1531). She married Edward Borough (c.1508-1533), then John, Lord Latimer (November 17,1493-March 2, 1543), and on July 12,1543 became the sixth wife of King Henry VIII (June 28,1491-January 28,1547). After the king’s death, she married Thomas Seymour, Baron Seymour of Sudeley (1507-x.March 10,1549) on April 4, 1547. She died giving birth to her only child, Mary (1548-1550). Biographies: Anthony Martienssen’s Queen Katherine Parr is highly speculative and poorly documented. Much better is Susan James’s Catherine Parr and its earlier incarnation Kateryn Parr: The Making of a Queen; two new biographies (2010) are Elizabeth Norton’s Catherine Parr and Linda Porter’s Katherine the Queen: The Remarkable Life of Katherine Parr; Oxford DNB entry under "Katherine [Kateryn, Catherine; née Katherine Parr]." Portraits: The portrait once thought to be Lady Jane Grey by Master John c.1545 is now believed to be Katherine Parr; painting by William Scrots, 1545; miniature; others.
MABEL PARR (c.1441-November 14, 1508)
Mabel Parr was the daughter of Thomas Parr of Kendal (c.1411-1464) and Alice Tunstall. She married Humphrey, 1st baron Dacre of the North (c.1420-1485) and was the mother of Thomas (November 25, 1467-October 24, 1525), Catherine, Christopher, Philip, Elizabeth, and Anne. During the reign of Henry VII, Mabel was accused of "ravishing" Richard Huddleston (1481-1502), a ward of the Crown. She had married him to her daughter Elizabeth without royal permission. She was confined for nine months in Lancaster Castle until she and her son, the 2nd baron Dacre, made four recognizances, on September 21, 1507, to pay a fine of 1000 marks. By that time Elizabeth Huddleston (née Dacre) had died, in Lancaster Castle, as a result, or so her brother claimed, of her distress at her mother's imprisonment.
see MARY SALISBURY
see MAUD GREEN
MAUD PARR (c. 1507-1558/9)
Maud Parr was the daughter of William Parr, Baron Parr of Horton (c.1480-September 10, 1547) and Mary Salisbury (1484-July 10, 1555). She married Sir Ralph Lane of Orlingbury, Northamptonshire (1509-1540) in 1523, although they did not live together as man and wife until 1527, and was the mother of his three sons and seven daughters, including Laetitia, Robert (1527-c.1588), Ralph (1532-1603), Frances, Mary, Jane, Dorothy, Katherine, and William (d.1580+). In 1540, for a payment of £40, she acquired the wardship of her son Robert and an annuity of £10. In 1543, she entered the service of her cousin, Queen Katherine Parr. She shared evangelical religious views with several other of the queen’s ladies and was at one point in danger of arrest. In the past, several historians misread Lady Lane as Lady Jane and thought that Lady Jane Grey was part of Katherine Parr’s protestant circle when she was queen, but Lady Jane would have been too young at that time. Maud Lane survived Henry VIII’s reign and retired to Horton until her death in 1558 or 1559. She is not, therefore, the Lady Lane who gave Queen Elizabeth a New Year’s gift in 1561/2. That was probably Maud’s daughter-in-law, Katherine Copley (d. March 1563), wife of her son Robert. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Lane [née Parr], Maud [Matilda].”
see ELLEN GADBURY
see ANNE REDE
BLANCHE PARRY (1508-February 12, 1590)
Blanche Parry was the daughter of Henry Myles of Bacton, Hertfordshire (d.c.1528) and Alice Milborne and acquired her surname through a variant of the Welsh manner of naming a son by his father’s first name—ap Harry means son of Harry. Blanche entered the service of the young Elizabeth Tudor by 1536, obtaining her position because her aunt, Blanche Milborne, Lady Troy, was in charge of the household. Blanche remained with Elizabeth throughout Elizabeth’s younger years and continued in her service after she became queen. She never married. When she died, she left bequests totaling £2,708 6s. 8d. in cash, in addition to legacies of land and jewels. Biographies: Ruth Elizabeth Richardson’s Mistress Blanche: Queen Elizabeth’s Confidante; Oxford DNB entry under “Parry, Blanche.” Portraits: several paintings, some of which are unlikely, based on the age of the sitter; two monuments, one in Bacton and the other in St. Margaret’s, Westminster, where she is buried.
see DOROTHY BROOKE
see JOAN GAMES
see KATHERINE HEYWOOD
ALICE PARTRIDGE (d.1598+)
Alice Partridge's parents lived in Holborn. In 1597, she found work a maidservant in the household of Margaret Carey Hoby (1567-1605), daughter of Lord Hunsdon and wife of Sir Edward Hoby, but she was dismissed after only six months. Her mother then went to Agnes Wilkinson and asked that notorious bawd to find a place for her daughter. In January 1598, Mrs. Wilkinson took her in and changed her name to Alice Woodstock. Partridge, in Elizabethan slang, referred to a lascivious woman, suitable for a common whore but not for one Mrs. Wilkinson intended to offer to one of her upper class clients. Alice was then dressed in finery a gentlewoman had pawned with Mrs. Wilkinson and taken to George Brooke's chamber in Whitehall. Arrangements were made through a Mr. Allen. When Alice gave her deposition on March 4, 1598, after she had been arrested and taken to Bridewell, she told of a quarrel between Mrs. Wilkinson and Allen (see AGNES WILKINSON). The most detailed account of Alice's career, given by Gustav Ungerer in "Prostitution in Late Elizabethan England: The Case of Mary Newborough," in Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England, Vol. 15, edited by John Pitcher, Robert Lindsey, and Susan Cerasano, does not reveal what became of her after her release from Bridewell.
ANNE PARTRIDGE (d.1557+) (maiden name unknown)
From 1525 until 1530, Anne Partridge held the post of nurse in the household of Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond (Henry VIII's son by Elizabeth Blount) at Sheriff Hutton, Yorkshire. This entitled her to have a maidservant and "a bay ambling horse." She received 50s as wages for the quarter in 1528 and, in 1530, a reward from the king of 40s. In May 1530, she was granted an annuity of £20. She was a widow by 1544, when she leased a house in the parish of St. Andrew by the Wardrobe in London. In 1557, she exchanged her annuity for one in survivorship with her son, Henry Partridge (d.1577+). Either her husband or her son was the "Harry Patriche" in the duke of Richmond’s household. Beverly Murphy, in her biography of Henry Fitzroy, identifies the son as a "young, unmarried gentleman of the chamber" c.1531.
see AGNES LEGH or LEIGH
BRIDGET PASTON (1565-1598)
Bridget Paston was the daughter and coheir of John Paston of Norfolk. On August 13, 1582, she married Sir Edward Coke of Melcham, Norfolk (February 1, 1552-September 3, 1634). She was said to have a dowry valued in excess of £30,000 and to be beautiful. She lived at Huntingfield, Suffolk, where she bore Coke seven sons and three daughters. Her children were Edward (d.yng.), Anne (1585-1671/2), Elizabeth, Robert, Arthur, Sir John, Henry (b.1590), Clement (d.1630), Thomas (d.yng), and Bridget (b.1597). Coke remarried but he was buried with his "first good wife." Portrait: effigy at Tittleshall, Norfolk.
BRIDGET PASTON (d.1624)
Bridget Paston was the daughter of Christopher Paston and Anne Audley. On November 3, 1603, she married Sir John Heveningham of Ketteringham (d.1633) as his second wife. Portrait: date unknown.
ELEANOR PASTON (d.1551)
Eleanor Paston was the daughter of Sir William Paston of Paston, Norfolk (1479-1554) and Bridget Heydon. She married Thomas Manners, earl of Rutland (c.1492-September 20, 1543), as his second wife, before 1523. Their children were Anne (c.1523-1549) Elizabeth (c.1527-August 8, 1570), Gertrude (d. January 1566), Henry (September 23, 1526-September 17, 1563), Sir John (d. June 4, 1611), Frances (c.1530-September 1576), Roger (1535-December 16, 1607), Sir Thomas (1537-1591), Oliver (d.1563), Isabel (d.yng.), and Catherine (July 1539-March 9, 1572), most of them born at Belvoir Castle in Lincolnshire. In between giving birth, she participated in the ceremony creating Anne Boleyn marchioness of Pembroke and accompanied the new marchioness and the king to France in October 1532. She was on the summer progress of 1536 and was one of the chief mourners at the funeral of Jane Seymour. She may have been part of Anne Boleyn's household. She was definitely a lady of the privy chamber to Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, and Catherine Howard. On June 3, 1536, the Rutlands' London house at Holywell in Shoreditch was the scene of a triple wedding uniting Henry Manners, age ten, with Lady Margaret Neville, Anne Manners with Henry, Lord Neville, and Dorothy Neville with Lord Bulbeck, the earl of Oxford's heir. In July 1537, Lady Rutland was quarantined at her manor of Endfield in Middlesex after a member of her household came down with the dreaded "sweat," but she was back at court in August, in time to take Catherine Bassett, stepdaughter of Arthur Plantagenet, viscount Lisle, under her wing and look after her until Catherine was awarded a post in the household of Anne of Cleves in August 1540. Two of Eleanor's sisters lived with her at different times during her marriage and in 1530 it was her sister-in-law, Anne Manners. Eleanor paid for 8 oz. of pearls for a frontlet for her and £3 15s. for goldsmith's work. Eleanor's daughter Gertrude was married from Holywell in April 1539 when her mother was about six months pregnant with her last child, Catherine. After they were both widowed, Eleanor shared her home at Holywell with Catherine Stafford, countess of Westmorland. The earl of Rutland's will, made in 1542, made Eleanor one of his executors and left her all his jewels, plate, and household goods, plus land worth almost £700 a year for her jointure. There is a monument to Eleanor, Catherine Stafford, Catherine Neville, and Margaret Neville in St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, erected in 1591. It says she was buried there in 1551. There is no death date for her on her husband's tomb at Bottesford, since that monument was erected during her lifetime. M. St. Clare Byrne gives her death date as October 12, 1559, but this seems to be a mistake for the death date of Margaret Neville, her daughter-in-law. The will of Catherine Neville, providing funds for the monument in St. Leonard's, states that she died "as I likewise remember, in anno iij Edward VI." That would make it 1550 or 1551, when Lady Catherine would have been nine or ten, old enough to remember the event. Portraits: her lifelike effigy is preserved in marble on her husband's tomb in St. Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Leicestershire; effigy in St. Leonard's, Shoreditch (removed to the British Museum in 1735).
ELIZABETH PASTON (1482-August 22, 1539)
Elizabeth Paston was the daughter of Sir John Paston of Norfolk (d.1503) and Margery Brewes (d.1494). Her first husband as William Clere of Ormsby, Yorkshire (1478-March 17, 1501), to whom she was married in 1499. In 1502, she married Sir John Fineux or Fyneux of Swingfield, Kent (1441-November 17, 1525), a judge, as his second wife. By her second husband she had a son, William (1506-April 1557) and a daughter, Anne (1503-October 31, 1530). She paid for the brass on the Fineux tomb and had inscribed upon it the statement that she "had ever good fame." When she died, she left £5 to the church so that she might be buried in the chancel at the south side of the high altar.
GERTRUDE PASTON (1552-October 24, 1605)
Gertrude Paston was the daughter of William Paston of Paston, Norfolk (1528-October 20, 1610) and Frances Clere (1531-1610). She married Sir William Read of Osterley, Middlesex (1538-October 23, 1621). Their children were Thomas (1570-July 3, 1595), Francis (1573-c.1605), Anne (1578-1616), and William. Read’s mother, Anne Fernley (1521-November 23, 1596) had remarried in 1544, taking as her second husband Sir Thomas Gresham (c.1518-1579), and the Read children and grandchildren lived with her at Osterley. After Gresham died. Gertrude is said to have assisted Anne in attempting to defraud the other beneficiaries named in Gresham's will. (see ANNE FERNLEY, FERNELEY, or FEARNLEY for more details).
KATHERINE PASTON (d.1605)
Katherine Paston was the daughter of Sir Thomas Paston of London (d. September 4, 1550) and Agnes Legh (d.1555+). She married Sir Henry Newton (1535-May 2, 1599) in 1560. Their children were Theodore (1589-1608), Elizabeth, Frances, Margaret, and Anne. According to David McKeen's A Memory of Honour: the life of William Brooke, Lord Cobham, she had been in Spain in the household of the duchess of Feria (Jane Dormer) but this does not seem consistent with her having begun service to Queen Elizabeth as a chamberer in 1576. She was a senior lady of the Privy Chamber by January 1598/9 when she lobbied for one of her daughters to be appointed to fill a vacancy among the maids of honor. Elizabeth Southwell was chosen for the post instead. Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, says that she was frequently ill and that in 1582 she was suffering from an ague. As a widow at Barr's Court, she put up a monument to her husband in Bristol Cathedral and one to his father, Sir John Newton, in East Harptree church. Portrait: effigy.
see KATHERINE KNYVETT
see MARY SOUTHWELL
ISABEL PATE (1555-1597)
Isabel Pate was one of the daughters of Richard Pate (1516-1588), Recorder of Gloucester from 1561-1588, and Maud Rastell (d.1588+). Pate's biography at http://www.livinggloucester.co.uk says his daughters all predeceased him and the biography of Isabel Wetherstone at the same site says only that she was related to Pate and was possibly his stepdaughter. Her first husband's will refers to Mistress Pate as his mother-in-law and her second husband's will refers to gold plate Isabel had received from her mother, Mistress Pate. If the 1555 birth date is correct, however, then the dates of Maud Rastell's marriages make it impossible for Isabel to be anyone's daughter except Pate's. Maud's previous husbands died well before that, Henry Marmion on March 7, 1542 and Thomas Lane on December 2, 1544. Isabel's first husband was Henry Browne (d.1580), a gentleman, by whom she had a son, Henry (d.1597+), and two daughters. They lived in the parish of St. Mary le Grace. She was the executor of his will. In May 1581, she married Thomas Wetherstone (c.1560-1597) of Longdon, Worcestershire and moved away from Gloucester. They had no children. When she was widowed a second time, Isabel gave up her rights to Longdon in return for £470. It is not clear where she lived after that, but she left money to the poor people of Gloucester in her will. Portrait: unknown date; unknown artist.
ANNE or AGNES
see ANNE or AGNES HOWARD
see DOWSABELL PAGET
see ELIZABETH CAPEL; ELIZABETH CODINGHAM; ELIZABETH COWDRAY; ELIZABETH SEYMOUR
ELIZABETH PAULET (d.1598+)
Elizabeth Paulet was the daughter of Sir John Paulet, 2nd marquis of Winchester (1517-November 4, 1576) and Elizabeth Willoughby (c.1510-April 1551/2). She married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham, Devonshire (1529/30-September 29, 1557) by a marriage license dated November 28, 1545. They had two children, William (1553-June 24, 1630) and Jane. Courtenay is listed in various genealogies as a peer, but in fact was only de jure earl of Devon. In other words, Elizabeth was not a countess. Courtenay was involved in the Dudley Conspiracy in 1556 and confined in the Tower of London for a time. Elizabeth was allowed to visit him there. He was pardoned on March 8, 1557 and later joined the war against France. He was at the battle of St. Quentin on August 18, 1557 but died of the illness that spread through the army afterward. His will, dated September 29, 1557, was proved November 16, 1557. In it, he left Elizabeth a third of his property in Devon and to their daughter willed an annuity of £20/year until she was twenty-one, at which time she would receive £1000. Their son, who was only four years and fourteen weeks old, became a ward of the Crown. Elizabeth remarried, taking as her second husband Henry Ughtred (Oughtred) of Southampton and Ireland (d. October 1598+). Ughtred's mother had married Elizabeth's father as her third husband. Some genealogies give Elizabeth a son, George Ughtred. Others say the couple was childless. Most online genealogies give Elizabeth a death date of November 5, 1576, but that was the date her father died. The History of Parliament entry for Ughtred has her still alive in 1598, when husband and wife had to flee their Irish home. Several of their properties, including the castle of Maine, were burnt by rebels.
ELIZABETH PAULET (c.1588-October 1655)
Elizabeth Paulet was the daughter of William Paulet, of Ewalden, Somerset (d. before 1590) and Elizabeth Codingham (d.1632). In April 1602, she married Oliver St. John, 4th baron St. John (1580-1646), who was later created earl of Bolingbroke. Their children were Oliver (d. October 23, 1642), Dorothy (d. June 28, 1628), Barbara, Elizabeth, Anthony, Francis, and Paulet (July 24, 1608-1638) Portrait: date and artist unknown; possible portrait of her children by Anthony Van Dyck (L-R: Barbara, Elizabeth, Dorothy, Anthony, Francis, Paulet, Oliver).
see FRANCES NEVILLE
see LUCY CECIL
MARY PAULET (d. October 10, 1592)
Mary Paulet was the daughter of John Paulet, 2nd marquess of Winchester (1517-November 4, 1576) and Elizabeth Willoughby (d. before April 4, 1551). Mary wed her stepbrother, Henry, 2nd baron Cromwell (d. November 20, 1592) and after his death married Richard Wingfield, 1st viscount Powderscourt (d.1634). She was the mother of Edward, 3rd baron Cromwell (1559-April 27, 1607).
SARAH PAULET (c.1557-June 13, 1608)
Sarah Paulet was the daughter of Amyas Paulet of Hinton St. George, Somersetshire (1536-September 26, 1588) and Margaret Harvey. In 1589, she married Francis Vincent of Stoke d’Abernon, Surrey (1568-1640), by whom she had nine children: Anthony (1594-1642), Amyas, Thomas, Elizabeth (d. 1539+), Margaret, Francis, Amyas, William, and Edward. The inscription on her tomb reads: "here lie in dust five signal virtues—strange that in one sepulchre can hold them all! more strange that a single Sarah could exhibit them! In one thing was our Sarah less than Abraham's. her days were few yet in all else true sarah, she had reached in paradise the bosom of a second Abraham all that of her was mortal rests where she was mortal prayed." Portrait: effigy in St. Mary's, Stoke d’Abernon.
see WINIFRED BRYDGES
see ANNE PEACOCK
URSULA PAYNE (d.1500+) (maiden name unknown)
Ursula Payne was the wife of Thomas Payne (d. October 30, 1500). Her husband was a wool merchant who built Payne's Place in Bushley, Worcestershire in the 15th century. After the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471, the Paynes gave Queen Margaret of Anjou shelter there. They had seven sons and four daughters. Payne left his house and goods to his widow. Portrait: brass in the Church of St. Peter, Bushley, Worcestershire.
ANNE PEACOCK (d.1587+) (maiden name unknown)
Anne was married three times. Her first husband is identified as Ralph Babthorpe of Osgodby but he is not one of the Ralph Babthorpes whose life dates are known, as they married other women. This Anne Babthorpe remarried after 1557, becoming the second wife of Robert Peacock or Paycock of York (d. June 15, 1570). Known as "Proud Paycock," he was an alderman from 1543 until his death and mayor of York in 1548-9 and again in 1567-8. His dwelling house was in Coppergate but he owned other houses in York as well. His will was written July 10, 1569 and proved June 20, 1570. He had six surviving children, all of them good Protestants and probably the children of his first wife, Anne Gale (d.1557). Peacock himself was described as "no favorer of religion," while Anne was a recusant. She did not conform until 1581. In 1587, in a power of attorney she granted to deliver seisin of all her lands in North Deighton to Robert Ramsden, she is described as "Ann Peacock lately wife of Robert Peacock late alderman of the city of York and same time [sometime] wife of William Skrymsher late of North Deighton, Esq."
ELIZABETH PECHE or
see ELIZABETH SCROPE
ELIZABETH PECHE (d.July 15, 1544)
Elizabeth Peche was the daughter of Sir William Peche of Lullingstone Castle, Kent (c.1425-April 9, 1488) and either Jane Clifford or Beatrix Chichele. Genealogists can't seem to agree. Elizabeth was born before 1480. Around 1495, she married John Hart of Westmill, Hertfordshire (c.1450-1507), by whom she had at least four children, Percival (1495-May 21, 1580), Elizabeth (d. March 31, 1552+), Cecily (d.1521+), and Ann (d.1566). Elizabeth's son Percival inherited Lullingstone from her brother, Sir John Peche (c.1473-1521). Elizabeth made a second marriage at an unknown date to George Brooke, a younger son of the 7th Baron Cobham. Her daughter, Elizabeth Hart, became the third wife of George's brother, Thomas, 8th Baron Cobham, in around 1518. She is not the same Elizabeth Peche who married Sir John Skeffington or Skevington of London (d. July 10, 1525) and Sir John Dauncey. That Elizabeth Peche died in 1549. Portrait: by a follower of Hans Holbein the Younger; effigy at Lullingstone.
LUCY PECKHAM (1504-July 31, 1552)
Lucy Peckham was the daughter of Thomas Peckham of Wrotham, Kent (d.1512) and Dorothy Horne. In November 1524, she married Geo]rge Harper, later of Sutton Valence, Kent (March 11, 1503-December 1558) and later knighted. She was the great niece of his stepfather, Alexander Culpeper, and inherited property in Kent from her brother. She complained to Lord Cromwell that her husband refused to support her because she refused to give him half of her inheritance, but he, as her husband, was entitled to all the income from her estates and in 1541 successfully won the right to hold Horne Place in Kent in the right of his wife. By that time, they were living apart and Lucy had been the mistress of Sir Richard Morison (d. March 20, 1556) since sometime in the 1530s. With Morison she had two sons and three daughters, including Marcellus (c,1545-February 5, 1559/60), Frances (c.1536-1560+), Mary (c.1543-1560+), and Anne (c.1547-September 22, 1560). According the Morison's biographer, Tracey A. Sowerby, Morison hoped to marry Lucy after she obtained a divorce, but she was unable to do so. Her mother-in-law, writing her will in 1542, left Lucy nothing, but she did leave "a bay colt, the dam I bought of Luce Harpur" to one of her daughters, indicating that there was some contact between the two women. In September 1546, Morison had a license to alienate Snitterfield Manor in Warwickshire to John Hales for a regrant in trust for Lucy Harper and her children. It was to be divided between their sons after her death. Morison also granted Lucy the reversion of part of his property in White Friars, London.This was a few weeks before Morison's marriage to Bridget Hussey. Lucy's daughter Frances married William Patrickson and her daughter Mary wed Bartholomew Hales (d.1599), John's brother, and held Snitterfield from 1570-1599. By June 1556, Sir George Harper married Audrey Gainsford; widow of George Taylor of Lingfield, Surrey. In his will, made on November 8, 1558, he named Audrey his executor. He died in his house in Blackfriars and was buried on December 12, 1558 in St. Martin's. Ludgate. In 1559, Audrey married George Carleton (1529-90) but she did not long survive. She was buried on January 27, 1560. Although Lucy Harper died in 1552, it was February 1, 1560 before letters of administration for her estate were granted to Mary Hales. On February 3, 1560, letters of administration for the estate of Audrey Carleton were granted to her next of kin, Margaret, wife of Thomas Culpeper. The inquisition post mortems for Marcellus Harper (October 18, 1560) and Anne Harper (October 8, 1560) reveal that Anne Harper, Frances Patricksen and Mary Hales inherited two messuages and two gardens in Blackfriars from their brother and that Audrey Harper took the profits of the premises in the year ending March 25, 1559/60. Richard Morison's 1556 willl provided that his illegitimate daughters follow the advice of Katherine Willoughby, duchess of Suffolk, in all matters.
see ELIZABETH SPARROW
HESTER DE PEIGNE (d.1648)
Hester de Peigne or de Peigni was a French Huguenot woman in exile in England. She married Alberico Gentilli (January 14, 1552-June 19, 1608) in about 1589. He had been regius professor of civil law at Oxford since 1580. In 1590 they were residing in London. Their son Robert Gentilis (1590-1654) was the earl of Essex's godchild and an infant prodigy, graduating from Oxford University at the age of twelve. Hester’s other children were Anna, Matthew, and possibly Hester. At the time of her death, she was living with her daughter, Anna Colt (wife of Sir John), at Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire.
JAÉL DE PEIGNE (d. March 1632)
Jaél de Peigne was the sister of Hester de Peigne and married Sir Henry Killigrew (d. March 2, 1603) as his second wife in London on November 7, 1590. In the summer of 1601, Killigrew applied for naturalization for his wife but was too ill to come to court. A letter from Sir Thomas Windebanke to Jaél reports that the queen signed the papers "quickly and with many gracious words." Their children were Joseph (c.1593-1616), Henry (c.1596-1645), Jaél or Jane, and Robert. When Sir Henry died, his widow was sole executrix and inherited a house in Lothbury, an income of £140/year, and over £1700 outright. At that time her mother was still alive. Killigrew's will (proved April 1603) reminds her that she never paid him the 2000 crowns promised him on his marriage. During the reign of James I, the Genevan scholar Isaac Casaubon was Jaél's houseguest. On April 22, 1617, she married George Downham, Bishop of Derry (1560-April 17,1634) in St. Margaret Lothbury as his second wife. He had preached Killigrew's funeral sermon. Her name is spelled Jaell de Pergne in his Oxford DNB entry.
see ANNE SACKVILLE
see DOROTHY CATESBY
see JUDITH ST. JOHN
see MARGARET THROCKMORTON
see ELLEN FLODDER
MRS. PENN or PENNE
see JULIANA ARTHUR; SYBIL HAMPDEN
PENNINGTON (d. October 12,
Elizabeth Pennington was the daughter of Sir John Pennington of Muncaster, Cambridgeshire (c.1436-May 3, 1512) and his second wife, Isabel Broughton (d.1468). She married first John Dalkeld or Salkeld, then, by July 14, 1481, wed Sir Walter Strickland of Sizergh, Westmorland (1464-September 16, 1506). Their children were Sir Walter (1497-January 9, 1527/8), Thomas, Mary, Doulce, and Agnes (d.c.1585). Her third husband, married in 1508, was Sir Richard Cholmley of Thornton-on-the-Hill, Yorkshire (1460-1521). He had no will and his only child was an illegitimate son, so Elizabeth inherited property in Cumberland, Kent, and Yorkshire with the rest of the estate going to her husband's brother. At some point between 1523 and 1529, she married a fourth time, taking as her husband Sir William Gascoigne of Cardington, Bedfordshire (d.1540). She was his second wife. They had no children. In 1537, they were sued in Chancery for failing to carry out certain provisions of the marriage agreement between her daughter, Mary Strickland, and Lewis Dyve.
see FRANCES PALSGAVE
MARGARET PENNINGTON (d.1552)
Margaret Pennington was probably the daughter of John Pennington of Muncaster, Cumberland (c.1436-May 3, 1512) and Isabel Boughton (d.1468). She was definitely related to that family and sold land in Essex to William Pennington in 1526. Margaret was a chamberer in Queen Catherine of Aragon's household by 1511 when, on October 18, she received a gift of a damask gown furred with miniver pure and edged with lettice On May 3, 1512, she received a gown of russet satin edged with miniver and turned with calbre and a kirtle of yellow satin bordered with crimson velvet. She remained at court after she married John Cooke or Coke of Gidea Hall, Essex (1473-October 10, 1516) in 1512. She was his second wife and, following John's death, it fell to Margaret to raise his son, Anthony (1505-1576) and daughter, Beatrice (1507-1561). She continued to be listed as one of the queen’s gentlewomen until 1523. Margaret Pennington is confused in some online genealogies with her goddaughter, Margaret Cooke (d.1558), who was Anthony's daughter and a maid of honor to Queen Mary, possibly because the senior Margaret also served in Mary Tudor’s household before Mary became queen. Records of Margaret Pennington remain in a dispute over the lease for the manor of Risebridge (1527-1537) and with her 1551 will, in which she made numerous bequests, including an angel to each of thirteen women with whom she served in Princess Mary’s household. Before her death, she purchased a stone for her grave with "my picture and my late husband's, and our several arms graven thereupon." Biography: Marjorie K. McIntosh, "Some New Gentry in Early Tudor Essex: The Cookes of Gidea Hall, 1480-1550,” Essex Archaeology and History, Vol. 9 (1977), pp. 129-138.
MME. or MRS.
PENOBSCOT or PENOBOSCOT
There is no Madame Penobscot, in spite of the fact that reputable histories continue to claim it is her portrait displayed at The Vyne, a National Trust property. The story goes that she was a Penobscot woman (or an Abenaki) who was captured and brought from Maine to England in 1605 by George Waymouth, or by Sir Ferdinando Gorges. There she was taught to speak English, and had her portrait painted, c.1620, wearing English dress. In fact, only male Indians were brought back to England by either man and the portrait is of an unknown Englishwoman. In early records, she is called Mrs. Pennicott or Mrs. Penniscot, but this may not be her name, either, as the portrait appears to have been owned in the 18th century by Rev. William Pennicott, a collector.
see ANNE GOODIER or GOODYERE
KATHERINE PENYSON (1440-1509+)
Katherine Penyson was born in Provence. Her father, Gregory Penyson or Peniston, was from Courtesello in the Piedmont region of Italy. Father and daughter came to England as political refugees. Katherine was a lady in waiting to Margaret of Anjou by 1452-3 and by December 22, 1456, when she was granted letters of denization as a native of Provence, had married Sir William Vaux (c.1436-May 4, 1471), who was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Katherine apparently shared Margaret of Anjou's imprisonment in England and returned with her to France in 1476. She witnessed Margaret's will in 1482, then returned to England. Her children, Sir Nicholas (c.1460-1523), 1st Baron Vaux, and Joan (c.1463-1538), were educated in the household of Henry VII's mother, Margaret Beaufort, where Katherine may also have had a place. She was still living at the time of Margaret Beaufort's death on June 29, 1509. On June 28, Henry VIII granted her an annuity of twenty marks. Previously, she'd had an annuity in the same amount from Richard III. She was buried in Blackfriars, London.
LETTICE PENYSTON (c. 1485-1558)
Lettice or Laetitia Penyston was the daughter of Sir Thomas Penyston (Peniston, Pennyston, Penystone) of Hawridge and Marshall, Buckinghamshire (c.1446-before1506) and Alice Bulstrode (d.c.1520). She was raised by Margaret Bourchier, Lady Bryan and may have lived for a time at court as that lady was in the household of Catherine of Aragon. In 1510, Lettice married Sir Robert Knollys (1451-1521) with whom she had Francis (1514-1596), Henry (d.1583), Mary, and Jane. Lettice Knollys, her son Francis’s infamous daughter, was named for her. Her second husband was Sir Robert Lee of Burston, Buckinghamshire (d.1537), by whom she also had children, probably Roger, John, Elizabeth, and Mary, although some of those may have been born to his first wife. In February 1540, she wrote to Lord Cromwell from Quarendon that she was "subject to all trouble, care, and heaviness . . . a sorrowful widow, as I do intend to live during my life, God willing." She asked leave to send to him for aid should she need it and sent him £10 "to buy you an ambling nag to hunt withal in summer." In another letter to Cromwell, she complained of Sir Anthony Lee, who had claimed her late husband's money, jewels, and plate. This was her stepson who, as his father's heir, claimed Burston and Quarrendon and wanted her to move out. She refused. She later married Sir Thomas Tresham (d.1559) of Rushton, Northamptonshire. Her will was dated June 28, 1557 and proved June 11, 1558.
see MARY SOMER
ELIZABETH PEPPARD (d. 1587+)
Elizabeth Peppard’s parentage is unknown but she was probably an Irishwoman. She married first John Eustace of Castlemartin, Kildare. Her second husband was Thomas Lee or Lea (x.February 14,1601), constable of Carrickfergus. They married in 1576. In 1581, he suppressed a rebellion of the Eustaces, but he does not seem to have been altogether certain of his loyalties. Both Thomas and Elizabeth were included in the general pardon of 1582. Lee was briefly in England in 1585, then returned to Ireland, where he was soon at odds with the earls of Ormond and Kildare. In October 1587, his plot against Walter Reagh was supposedly thwarted by Elizabeth’s treachery, after which Lee separated from her. Shortly afterward, however, when he was imprisoned in Dublin Castle, she went to plead for him at the English court. She succeeded in obtaining his release, but he was imprisoned twice more, in 1595 and 1598. When the earl of Essex left Ireland in September 1599, Lee followed him to England. On February 12, 1601, after Essex’s failed rebellion, Lee attempted to rescue him. For this failed attempt, he was arrested, tried, and executed at Tyburn. The Lees had one son.
ANNE PERCY (1443-July 5, 1522)
Anne Percy was the daughter of Henry Percy, 3rd earl of Northumberland (1421-1461) and Eleanor Poynings. She married first Sir Thomas Hungerford (x. January 17, 1468/9), and then Sir Laurence Raynesford of Bradfield Hall, Essex (c.1419-September 18, 1490). Her third husband, to whom she was married by December 1493, was Hugh Vaughan of Littleton, Middlesex (d.1536), gentleman usher of the king's chamber. In 1492, he was at the center of a controversy because more nobly born competitors did not want to joust against someone of his humble origin. Henry VII insisted that he be permitted to enter the tournament, even though he was not knighted until several years later. Under Henry VIII, he was Lieutenant of the Tower and a privy councilor. Upon his marriage to Anne, he was assured of an income of £168/year from her estates while she lived and £40/year after her death. Anne had one daughter by her first husband, the Hungerford heiress, Mary (c.1468-before July 10, 1533). Anne was buried in St. Michael Chapel, Westminster Abbey with her third husband.
ANNE PERCY (July 27, 1485-1552)
Anne Percy was the daughter of Henry Percy, 4th earl of Northumberland (1446-April 28, 1489) and Maud Herbert (d.1485). She was in the household of Elizabeth of York by 1494 when, at age nine, she presented one of the participants in a tournament to Princess Margaret, then age five. She in mentioned in royal clothing warrants for 1497 and 1498 and on one occasion received two gowns, a kirtle, a bonnet, a doublet, and other items. On July 10, 1502 "Lady Anne Percy" was at Windsor to take a delivery of linen cloth for a sampler to the queen. She is recorded as serving the queen from June-December 1502. A needlework sampler attributed to Lady Anne herself has descended through the Eyre family and is the subject of an article in Oremus (July&August 2011) by Christopher Wickham. After the death of Elizabeth of York, Lady Anne was part of the household of Princess Mary and she was probably the "Lady Percy" who attended Queen Catherine at her coronation in 1509. She was paid an annuity of £20 until 1509. In September 1509, she was paid 100 marks (£26 13s. 4d.) "upon a warrant delivered by Edmund Dudley." On February 15, 1511, she married, as his second wife, William Fitzalan, Lord Maltravers (1483-January 23, 1544). The king made an offering of 6s. 8d. for the occasion. In 1524, Maltravers succeeded his father as earl of Arundel. Their children were Henry (April 23, 1512-February 25, 1579/80), Catherine (d.1552+), Margaret, and Elizabeth.
see ANNE SOMERSET
see CATHERINE NEVILLE
see DOROTHY DEVEREUX
ELEANOR PERCY (1470-February 13, 1530)
Eleanor or Alianor Percy was the daughter of Henry Percy, 4th earl of Northumberland (1446-1489) and Maud Herbert (d.1485). An alternate birth date is given as 1474 in Leaconsfield, Yorkshire. She may have been brought up in the household of Margaret Beaufort, along with her future husband, Edward Stafford, 3rd duke of Buckingham (February 3, 1478-x. May 17, 1521). They married on December 14, 1490. Their children were Elizabeth (1499-1558), Henry (1501-1563), Catherine (d.1555), and Mary. She was at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520 as the ranking peeress but the very next year her husband was attainted for treason and his titles and lands were forfeit to the Crown. Eleanor was left with her jointure lands in Northamptonshire and Wiltshire, worth 2000 marks/year. Eleanor's second husband was John Audley of Hodnill, Warwickshire (1478-August 19, 1538). Her will, written on June 24, 1528, requested that her heart be buried in the Church of the Grey Friars in London and her body in the Church of the White Friars in Bristol, "if I shall happen to decease in those parts." The will was proved May 15, 1531. According to W. A. Sessions' biography of Eleanor's grandson (Henry Howard The Poet Earl of Surrey), the Arundel MS 318 contains poems by Eleanor, duchess of Buckingham.
ELEANOR PERCY (January 1582/3-December 24,1650)
Eleanor Percy was the third daughter of Henry Percy, 8th earl of Northumberland (1532-June 20, 1585) and Catherine Neville (1546-October 28, 1596). She was married before 1598 to William Herbert, later first baron Powys (c.1573-March 7, 1655). Their children were Percy (1598-January 19, 1667), Katherine (d.1616), Lucy, William, Dorothy, and Barbara. She was buried in Hackney. Portrait: painted in 1595 when she was thirteen, possibly a wedding portrait.
see ELEANOR HARBOTTLE
see JOYCE WASHBOURNE
see KATHERINE SPENCER
LUCY PERCY (d.1625)
Lucy Percy was the daughter of Thomas Percy, 7th earl of Northumberland (1528-x.August 22,1572) and Anne Somerset (1538-October 17, 1596). When her parents rebelled against the Crown in 1569, she was probably one of the daughters left behind at Wressel. Two of them were later found there, nearly frozen and half starved. The servants they’d been left with had been murdered and the house ransacked. She and her sisters were taken into the household of her uncle (later the 8th earl) after her mother fled abroad and her father was arrested for treason. It is doubtful that she is the child born after the rebellion failed, since she lived in England and eventually married Sir Edward Stanley of Tong, Shropshire (c.1563-1632). They had two daughters, Frances and Venetia (1600-1633). Portrait: miniature by Isaac Oliver, 1620.
MARGERY PERCY (d.1590+) (maiden name unknown)
Margery had seven children by her first husband, a man named Gore, when she married Christopher Percy. Gore had left her an inheritance of 100 marks, but only so long as she did not wed again. Percy claimed an income of £100 a year and promised to give £100 to each of Margery’s daughters and £100 to Margery herself if she married him. After the wedding, however, he refused to do so. Further, he treated her cruelly, restricting her friendships and humiliating her in public. He left her "in very bare estate for provision" and threatened to take her children away from her to tame her. The case came to court in 1590 when Christopher sued Margery for restitution. She answered by bringing witnesses to his cruelty. Later, she accused him of adultery. Further details are given in Laura Gowing's Domestic Dangers: Women, Words, and Sex in Early Modern London, but not the outcome of the case. The only one of Margery's children who is named is Walter Gore.
see MARY TALBOT
MARY PERCY (1532-1598)
Mary Percy was the daughter of Sir Thomas Percy (1504-x.June 2, 1537) and Eleanor Harbottle (c.1504-May 18, 1566) and the sister of two successive earls of Northumberland, Thomas Percy, 7th earl (d.1572), the rebel, and Henry Percy, 8th earl (d.1585). Her father was executed when she was just five years old and her mother remarried, taking as her second husband Sir Richard Holland (1493-c.1548), by whom she had another daughter, also named Mary. In 1556, Mary Percy married Francis Slingsby of Scriven, Yorkshire (c.1522-August 3, 1600). They had nine sons and three daughters, including Henry (February 17, 1560-December 27, 1634), the fourth born but first surviving son, Charles (b. November 21,1561), William (January 23,1563-August 1634), the seventh born but third surviving son, Arthur, Guildford (b. October 6, 1565), Francis, Catherine, Eleanor, and Anne. At the time of the Northern Rebellion in 1569, Francis Slingsby sided against the earl of Northumberland. Portrait: tomb effigy, Knaresborough, Yorkshire.
MARY PERCY (1563-1643)
Mary Percy was the daughter of Thomas Percy, 7th earl of Northumberland (1528-x.August 22,1572) and Anne Somerset (1538-October 17,1596). Both parents were involved in the Northern Rebellion of 1569 and when it failed, six-year old Mary was left behind in England with her three sisters, Elizabeth, Lucy, and Jane, in the care of a Mrs. Naseby. They were taken in by Henry Percy, their father’s brother, who was granted the Northumberland title after Thomas Percy’s execution for treason. The girls were raised at Petworth with their cousins and apparently given an excellent education, as Mary later assisted in translations from the French and received at least one dedication. Some sources have Mary wed to Sir Thomas Grey of Wark. Whether or not she was married earlier in life, Mary eventually joined the English exiles in the Netherlands, perhaps after traveling there to claim her mother’s possessions after the countess’s death. According to her epitaph, Mary “suffered imprisonment in England for a long time” for her faith before she was able to leave. Once she reached Brussels, Mary founded, along with fellow English exiles Dorothy and Gertrude Arundell, an English Benedictine convent, which was dedicated on November 21, 1599 with Joanna Berkeley as abbess. In 1600, Mary took her vows and became a nun in that convent. In 1616 she was elected abbess. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Percy, Lady Mary.” Portraits: marble effigy.
see THOMASINE BONAVENTURE
ELIZABETH PERIENT (d.1580)
Elizabeth Perient was the daughter of George Perient (Peryent/Periente) of Digswell, Herfordshire (c.1505-1532) and Agnes Sporne. Her first husband was Sir Humprey Style of Langley Styles and Beckenham, Kent, by whom she had a son, Edmund, who died young, and a daughter, Mary. On June 27, 1558, at Beckenam, she married Thomas Townshend of Bracon Ash, Norfolk (c.1532-June 5, 1591). They had three sons, Roger (1563-1573), Thomas (1566-1567), and Henry (1568-1625). Elizabeth continued to call herself Lady Style (her superior title) after her second marriage. In 1571, the couple were admonished by the Bishop of Norwich for not attending church. By July 16, 1578 when Queen Elizabeth visited them at Bracon Ash, six miles from Norwich, on her annual progress, Thomas had conformed but his wife had not. She was still listed as a recusant after her death. She was buried at Bracon Ash on June 30, 1580.
MARGERY PERIENT (d.c.1582)
There is some debate about Margery's parentage. The History of Parliament says she is the daughter of George Perient of Shropshire and Hertfordshire. The old edition of the Dictionary of National Biography lists her father as Martin Perient, treasurer to the army in Ireland, but the newer online Oxford DNB doesn't attempt to identify her father at all. Her surname is variously spelled Perient, Perin, and Peryn and her Christian name is sometimes listed as Mary or Margaret rather than Margery. George Perient (c.1505-1532) is certainly the right age to have fathered Margery, but genealogies give him only three other daughters, Elizabeth (see her entry), Katherine, who married 1) John Bacon 2) Sir Humphrey Drewell and 3) John Spring, and Mary (d.1577), wife first to William Clopton of Kentwell, Suffolk (d.1562) and then to George Barnardiston of Isckwellbury (d.1575). Whatever her parentage, Margery made two significant marriages. Her first husband was Guilio Cesare Adelmare (Delmarais/Delamare) of Treviso, Italy (d.1569), a physician who came to England c.1550, was naturalized in 1558, and was one of the royal physicians to both Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. He must have been well regarded. The godparents of their first son, Julius (1558-1636), baptized at St. Dunstan-in-the-East on February 10, 1557/8, were William Paulet, marquess of Winchester, Henry Fitzalan, earl of Arundell, and Queen Mary, represented by Lady Montague. After his father's death, young Julius was the ward of William Cecil, Lord Burghley. Margery's other children by her first husband were William (d.c.1591), Thomas (1561-1610), Henry (1564/5-1636), Margaret, Anne, and Elizabeth. All the children used the surname Caesar rather than Adelmare. The family had houses close to St. Helen, Bishopgate in London and in Tottenham and Cesare was granted several leases by the queen. Sometime after the death of his first wife in 1571 and before 1576, Margery married Michael Locke (Lok/Lock) of London (c.1532-c.1621), a widower with five sons and three daughters of his own. Locke was a merchant and London alderman who invested in many voyages of exploration, including those made by Martin Frobisher in 1574-9 to search for a north-west passage to the Orient. This venture ruined Locke financially and in 1581 he was in the Fleet for debt.
ANNE PERKINS (d.1534+) (maiden name unknown)
Anne Perkins was the wife of Francis Perkins or Parkyns (c.1504-before 1560). Their children were Henry (c.1530-1590), William, Francis, and Arthur. On June 10, 1534, they were living at Pam Hall, the manor house of a manor called Hussey's in Padworth, Berkshire. The estate was managed by Francis's older brother, Richard Perkins. A neighbor, Sir Humphrey Forster, apparently had a quarrel with the Perkins brothers, although no hint of what it was has survived. With a band of armed men, he invaded the house early that morning, found Francis sitting on a stool in the hall, buckling up his shoes, and assaulted him. Francis was bleeding from the head and in serious danger of being murdered when Anne intervened. According to the documents from the case later brought before the Star Chamber, she "piteously & lamentably kneling upon hur knes in her Smok by a long season intreated Sir Humfrey to w'draw his malicious purpose." Unfortunately, although Sir Humphrey then left the house, he took Francis Perkins with him, going on to Ufton Robert to attack Richard Perkins (see ELIZABETH MOMPESSON). Francis was later taken to Sir Humphrey’s house, Aldermaston, and locked up overnight. One must suppose he was seriously injured because when Richard Perkins took legal action at the next quarter sessions, it was Anne, not Francis, who brought charges of riot against Sir Humphrey and his men. The case went to to the Star Chamber, but the records are incomplete and the resolution is missing. We do not know what happened to either Francis or Anne after that, although Francis clearly predeceased his brother.
see ELIZABETH MOMPESSON
MARY PERKINS (x.1609) (maiden name unknown)
Mary Perkins was convicted of poisoning her husband, Thomas Perkins, in Worcester in 1609, and sentenced to be burnt to death, since to kill one’s husband was petty treason, a more serious crime than plain old murder. To add insult to injury, Mary was required to buy the faggots, pitch, gunpowder, and straw used to make the fire, and the iron links used to fasten her to the stake, and to pay six men to tend the fire.
see ANNE CHENEY
see DOROTHY DEVEREUX
see MARY BERKELEY
PENELOPE PERROTT (1588-1620+)
Penelope Perrott was the daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Perrott of Haroldston and Narbert, Pembrokeshire (September 1533-February 1594) and Dorothy Devereux (1564-August 3, 1619). Her father's will, dated February 12, 1594, divided his estates between Penelope and her mother. It was proved on February 15, 1594. Penelope had two notorious grandparents, Sir John Perrott, who was later said to be an illegitimate son of Henry VIII and who died in the Tower of London as an attainted traitor, and Lettice Knollys, countess of Essex and Leicester, the queen's cousin as a granddaughter of Mary Boleyn, the wife of Her Majesty's favorite, Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, and the mother of her next favorite, Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, executed for treason in 1601. The countess lived until 1634. In 1602, Penelope received an inheritance from one Edward Barker of London, a lawyer. According to his entry in the History of Parliament, Barker seems to have considered himself wronged in the matter of a settlement of Gloucester lands (formerly the property of the earl of Leicester) on Lettice Knollys and her third husband, Sir Christopher Blount. Barker was also involved in financial transactions with the couple c.1597-1601. His will, dated May 23, 1602 and proved June 22, 1602, left £200 and the profits out of the £315 he had subscribed to the East India Company to Penelope. No reason is given for this unusual bequest. Early in the reign of King James, Penelope married William Lower or Lowrey of St. Winnow, Cornwall (c.1570-April 12, 1615). They lived on her estates at Treventy, Carmarthenshire, Wales and had one child, Dorothy (1608-1677) at the time of his death. Penelope gave birth to a posthumous son, Thomas (November 29, 1615-February 5, 1660/1). Administration of her late husband's estate was granted to her. In 1619, by which times she was married to Sir Robert Naunton of Letherington, Suffolk (1563-March 27, 1635), secretary of state to King James, she renewed the effort begun by her father in 1587-92 to overturn the will of his maternal grandfather, Sir Thomas Cheyney, whose heir had died without issue in 1587. With Naunton she had one child, Penelope (October 2, 1620-before 1647). They lived in London.
see ELIZABETH D’OYLEY
see ISABEL STANLEY
KATHERINE PESHALL (1483-February 1, 1540/1)
Katherine Peshall was the daughter and heir of Sir Hugh Peshall of Knightley, Staffordshire (c.1459-July 27, 1490) and Isabel Stanley (d.1519). In his will, her father specified that she should remain in the custody of her mother until she was twenty-one, but her mother arranged for her to marry on August 1, 1492, at Bewdley, Worcestershire. Her husband, also still a child, was John Blount of Kinlet, Shropshire (1484-February 27, 1531). They probably remained with his family. Katherine was also the heir of her grandfather, Humphrey Peshall, although he tried to disinherit her by remarrying and fathering a son. On behalf of her daughter, Isabel and her second husband, John Russhe, took Humphrey to court, charging him with a breach of the marriage settlement made before the wedding of Isabel and Hugh Peshall. British History Online, on the parish of Church Eaton, Staffordshire, says Katherine was aged upwards of twenty in 1498, when he died. She eventually inherited a considerable estate and the manors of Knightley and Little Onne reverted to her on the death of her step-grandmother, Letitia Harcourt. Katherine and John were the parents of five sons and six daughters, all pictured on their tomb: Elizabeth (c.1500-1540), Anne (c.1504-1580+), Sir George (1512/13-July 20, 1581), William (c.1514-1544+), Henry (c.1515-1545+), Rose, Isabel, and Albora. Another two sons and one daughter probably died young. In 1502, Katherine was briefly a lady in waiting to Catherine of Aragon at Ludlow Castle. As a widow, Katherine approached Thomas Cromwell, asking him to bestow confiscated monastic lands on her younger sons, but her request was not granted. Several of her letters are extant. In her later years, she used Kinlet as one of her two principal residences. She made her will on January 2, 1540. Portrait: effigy on Blount tomb in St. John the Baptist, Kinlet.
THOMASINE PESHALL (d.1506+)
Thomasine Peshall was the daughter of Humphrey Peshall or Persall of Horsley, Staffordshire (d. June 3, 1488) and Helen Swynnerton. She was older than her brother John (1484/5-1564+) and brought suit in the court of requests on his behalf, charging Thomas Harcourt of Ranton with "rape of ward" for carrying John off upon Humphrey's death and marrying him, when he was still underage, to Catherine (sometimes called Helena) Harcourt (c.1482-1546), Thomas's daughter. The case appears to have been thrown out. Harcourt claimed that the bishop of Coventry and Lichfield had purchased John's wardship and marriage from the Crown and then sold both to him.
see ANNE BROWNE
DOROTHY PETRE (1534-May 16,1618)
Dorothy Petre was the daughter of Sir William Petre (1505-1572) and Gertrude Tyrrell (d. May 28, 1541). She married Sir Nicholas Wadham of Merefield, Somerset (1532-October 20,1609) on September 3, 1555. Dorothy’s only claim to fame lies in the fact that she had enough money (£19,200 from her husband and an additional £7270 of her own) to found Wadham College after her husband’s death. In fact, almost nothing of known of her life between her marriage and his death. The Letters of Dorothy Wadham is a slim volume, published in 1904, and has mostly to do with the college, which received its royal letter patent on December 20, 1610. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Wadham [née Petre], Dorothy.” Portraits: 1595; c. 1594 by a follower of Custodis; carved statue at Wadham College, Oxford; funerary brass, St. Mary’s Church, Ilminster, Somerset.
see GERTRUDE TYRRELL
see KATHERINE SOMERSET
THOMASINE PETRE (April 7, 1543-1611+)
Thomasine Petre was the daughter of Sir William Petre of Ingatestone Hall (1505-January 13, 1572) and Anne Browne (1509-March 10, 1582). At the age of twelve, after Mary Tudor became queen, Thomasine joined the household of Gertrude Blount, Marchioness of Exeter, to complete her education. An article by Anne Buck in the Costume Society Journal, vol. 24 (1990) gives an account of "The Clothes of Thomasine Petre 1555-1559." On February 10, 1559/1560, at sixteen, Thomasine married Ludovic Greville of Milcote, Warwickshire (c.1545-November 14, 1589). Her trousseau cost £108 11s. 5d. At her wedding, according to Maria Hayward in Rich Apparel, she most likely wore "a pair of white satin sleeves with a trained kirtle welted with white velvet and lined with white bridges satin." Other fabrics included in the ensemble would have been of russet wrought velvet, crimson satin, and black damask. They had numerous children—Edward, William, John, Valentine, Anne, Margaret, Charles, and Peter—but it is unlikely to have been a harmonious marriage. Ludovic was a violent man. In 1578, he attacked Sir John Conway with a cudgel and would have gone on to cut off his legs with a sword if a servant had not intervened. He was imprisoned in the Marshalsea for this crime but eventually released. In 1588, he was summoned before the Privy Council on charges of fraud and in 1589, he was arraigned at the Warwickshire Assizes as an accomplice in two murder cases. To keep the state for seizing everything he owned, he refused to plead. Those who chose that option could save their estates for their families but their sentence was a terrible one, to be pressed to death by heavy weights. Thomasine's son Edward, although reputed to be charming, was as immoral as his father. He was accused of fatally shooting an elder brother in order to succeed to the family estates and when he married a wealthy heiress in 1583, he went through her fortune and left her penniless. In her long widowhood, Thomasine apparently kept musicians, as there is a reference to her "fiddlers" at Gloucester in 1599.
ABIGAIL PETT (d.1599)
Abigail Pett was the daughter of Peter Pett of Deptford (d. September 1589), master shipbuilder, and Elizabeth Thornton (d.1597). Abigail was left 100 marks in her father’s will, to be paid upon her marriage or when she reached the age of twenty-four. She did not survive that long. Her mother remarried, taking as her second husband a minister named Thomas Nunn. He accepted a living at Weston Suffolk and moved there with Abigail’s mother and the youngest Pett children—Peter, Abigail, Elizabeth, and Mary. Nunn was apparently a brutal man. Shortly after he took a new wife (Anne Nuce), he beat Abigail with tongs and a firebrand. She died three days later. Nunn was tried at the Bury assizes and convicted but he was allowed to sue out a pardon, which was granted on May 28, 1599. He did not long survive, however. He made his will on July 21, 1599 and it was proved on September 7, 1599.
see LUCY WATTS
see ELEANOR COTGREAVE
see ANNE FEILDING or FIELDING
see GODITHA THROCKMORTON
JANE PEYTON (d. December 1551)
Jane Peyton was the daughter of Thomas Peyton of Knowlton, Kent. Her first husband was John Langley of Knowlton (c.1471-November 3, 1518). In January 1519, she married Sir Edward Ryngeley/Ringley (d.1543), marshall of Calais from 1530-35 and comptroller in 1539. Lady Ryngeley wrote five letters to Lady Lisle in 1535, when she was in England, the first from London on April 27 to thank Lord Lisle for seeing her off from Calais. That she asks Lady Lisle to make sure that Lady Banyster, widow of Sir Humphrey and a mutual friend, "take not away all the love between my husband and me till I come home again," a remark repeated in other letters, is clearly meant as a joke. Another letter was written from her house at Knowlton on May 18, after a brief visit from Sir Edward. On July 13 and August 10, she is in Sandwich. She had hoped to be back in Calais before this. Since there are no further letters in the Lisle correspondence, she probably returned there soon after. The usually accurate M. St. Clare Byrne, editor of The Lisle Letters, creates considerable confusion by incorrectly stating that Ryngeley was married twice and that his first wife was Elizabeth Peyton, widow of Edmund Langley. She then assumes that there is a second wife, identified as Jane Boyes of Nonington, Kent. While it is true that the will of William Boyes (1500-1549) refers to Edward Ryngeley as his sons' uncle, there is no Jane among William's sisters. According to The History of Parliament entry for Ryngeley, his sister was married to Thomas Boys's brother. Thomas Boys was executor of Ryngley's will. The will made by Jane, Lady Ryngeley, on December 14, 1551 also makes it quite clear that she was the only Lady Ryngeley. In it she states that she was married first to John Langley and then to Edward Ryngeley and that her brothers were Sir Robert Peyton and Edward Peyton. She had previously, in 1544, conveyed most of her interest in Langley property to her nephew, John Peyton (d.1558), Sir Robert's son.
see MARY SEYMOUR
see AGNES WALTER
MARGARET PHESANT (d.1618)
Margaret Phesant (Pheasant/Fesant) was the daughter of Jasper Phesant of Tottenham, Middlesex and Alice Heveningham. She married Sir Stephen Slaney (1524-December 27, 1608), a skinner and Lord Mayor of London in 1595. She was the mother of Jasper (d. before 1597), Stephen (d. before 1598), Mary (c.1560-1623), Elizabeth (d.1632), and Anne (d.1602). After the death of her youngest daughter following childbirth, Margaret brought up her granddaughter, Elizabeth Colepeper (1602-1683). In her will, dated October 20, 1612 and proved May 24, 1619, she left £1200 to the Grocer’s Company to set up endowments for ministers. She requested that this bequest be confirmed by act of Parliament, but even though the Grocers made inquiries to this end in 1621, it was never done.
see MARY BRUGES
ELIZABETH PHILIP (d.1536+) (maiden name unknown)
Elizabeth Philip was an embroiderer and silkwoman. Nothing is known of her parentage or whether or not she was married, although most London silkwomen were the wives of merchants. She made silk trimmings and incorporated silk into garments and accessories and also made costumes for revels and pageants at court over a period of at least twenty-six years. She probably employed others to help with the work. In November 1510, "Mistress Ellsebethe Philypp" supplied ribbons and Venice gold to make seventy-two tassels. She was paid £6 2s. 2d. in March 1513 for materials used in the disguisings the previous Twelfth Night. In December 1514, she supplied Venice ribbon, ribbon points, German-style mantles, gowns, and bonnets to the court. In 1516 she provided gold damask to be used in a coat for the king. In 1517/18, "Mistress Philipps," an "embroideress," was awarded an annuity of ten marks by the duke of Buckingham, sharing it with John Haslewood. She appears frequently in the duke's accounts for 1519. In March Mrs. Phylypes was paid 40s. and her maids 20s. In August there is an entry for an overcharge for plate "had of Mrs. Phillips, not entered in the wardrobe accounts," of £16 2s, 7d. By 1519, the duke owed her several hundred pounds and she wrote numerous dunning letters in 1519 and 1520. At the same time, however, she continued to extend credit to the duke's servants. In her work for the royal court in 1519, Elizabeth, together with Christiana Warren, provided costumes for a masque on March 7 and a joust on March 8, both at Greenwich—everything from ostrich feathers to wire for skirt hoops. They were paid £60 7s. 3d. Later that year, Elizabeth supplied green material, thirteen yards of ribbon, and 482 ounces of flat gold and flat silver woven into fringes, at 3d./ounce, for a revel at New Hall in Essex held on September 3. The next summer, she provided goods for the Field of Cloth of Gold, including Paris ribbon, material to make hose for the royal footmen and ready-made hose for the armourers. In 1522, she provided ninety-one ounces of red silk cords at 14d./ounce for borders for Italian mantles for a revel, as well as Venice Gold woven into knots, headdresses of damask gold, twelve yards of white sarcenet, and three gross of points at 4s./gross, to fasten sleeves, cloaks, bonnets, and buskins. In June 1522, she provided materials for a masque and a tournament. Elizabeth Salter, in Six Renaissance Men and Women, speculates that the "Mrs. Phelipes" listed as one of the queen's maids in 1526 may be Elizabeth Philip, silkwoman and that, if so, she was provided with lodgings at court. The actual list, in the Eltham Ordinances, separates “the queen’s maids” from other ladies listed by name. Another version assigns lodgings to “Fras. Philip and his wife,” indicating that it is Francis Philip who belongs to the queen’s household, not his wife. Our Elizabeth Philip, based in London, was still in business at the time of Anne Boleyn's death in 1536. Queen Anne died owing her 10s. 4d.
EMMA PHILIPS (d.1603+)
Emma Philips married William Baxter (d.1602+), a member of the Barber-Surgeon's Company of London. Emma's brother, Edward Philips (d.1602+), was "an up and coming apothecary." The College of Physicians, which regulated midwives and other medical practitioners, charged Emma with practicing medicine without a license and imprisoned her for four days. According to Deborah E. Harkness in The Jewel House: Elizabethan London and the Scientific Revolution, they described her as "an ignorant and bold woman." She was released when her husband promised to prevent her from repeating her offenses. Harkness dates Emma's activities from as early as 1571.
JUDITH PHILIPS (d.1595+) (maiden name unknown)
Judith Philips was married first to an "honest poor man" and then to a gunsmith. She was the subject of a popular pamphlet published in London in 1595 and titled The Brideling, Sadling, and Ryding , of a rich Churle in Hampshire. It featured two woodcuts. One shows Judith using a farmer as a beast of burden. The other portrays her as a woman with a pair of scissors threatening a wealthy old woman. On January 9, 1594, Judith and her husband were examined at Newgate by sergeant-at-law Thomas Fleming on the charge that they cozened a rich widow after promising to help her choose a suitor. Judith also bilked customers out of their money by promising to introduce them to the Queen of the Fairies. Sometimes called a cunning woman, a term more properly used for a healer, Judith was in actuality a con woman. When she was finally caught and tried, she was whipped and imprisoned for her crimes. According to the pamphlet, she convinced a Hampshire couple that a treasure was buried in the hollow tree next to their house but that they needed to undergo a ritual to get at it. She saddled and bridled the man and rode him back and forth between the tree and the house. Then she made both husband and wife grovel on their bellies under the tree while she went to consult the queen of the fairies. She also convinced a wealthy London widow that her husband had hidden a treasure in her house and that the house was now haunted. Two henchmen beat on the walls during the night to lend credence to her story.
ANNE PHILLIPS (d.1618) (maiden name unknown)
Anne Phillips married Augustine Phillips (d. May 1605), musician, player, and shareholder in the Globe, in about 1593. They lived near the playhouse, in Horseshoe Court. Their children were Magdalen (September 1594-1605+), Rebecca (1596-1605+) another daughter buried September 7, 1597, Anne, Elizabeth, and Augustine (1601-1604). In 1604, Phillips bought a house in the country near Mortlake which he left to his youngest daughter, Elizabeth. Anne inherited his share in the Globe, but she made an unwise second marriage, to John Witter/Wittles (d.1620+). Records of a lawsuit in 1619-20 over Anne’s share in the Globe (a sixth part of the galleries, ground, and playhouse) contain the information that Witter "suffered Anne to make shift for herself to live." She was assisted over the years by John Heminges, one of her first husband’s fellow actors. He even paid for her funeral. Anne died at the house of William Smith, surgeon, of Houndsditch and was buried in the church of St. Botolph’s Without Aldgate on January 26, 1617/18. On November 29, 1620, the Court of Requests dismissed Witter’s case and ordered him to pay Heminges’s court costs of 20s.
ELIZABETH PHILLIPS (June 18, 1565-October 15, 1632)
Elizabeth Phillips was the daughter of Thomas Phillips (January 2, 1538-1597) and Elizabeth Ivy (b. October 30, 1540). The Phillips family was Welsh in origin, Elizabeth’s parents were married in Much Hadham, Hertfordshire and Elizabeth was reportedly born in London, but some sources also identify her father as the Thomas Phillips a mercer who was master of the Guild of the Holy Cross in Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire in 1563. On January 24, 1580/1, Elizabeth, called Bess, married Richard Quiney (c.1559-May 1602), another mercer from Stratford. When Bess’s husband was in London on Corporation business in October and November of 1598, she sent him goods to sell, including cheeses and tobacco. She was also busy managing her rental property and borrowing and lending money. Excerpts from letters written to Richard by his father and by a colleague are reprinted in Germaine Greer’s fascinating if highly speculative biography, Shakespeare’s Wife. On May 3, 1602, Bess’s husband, who was serving as bailiff, came upon a brawl. When he attempted to intervene, he was struck on the head. Although he lingered for three weeks, he never regained consciousness. He was buried on May 31, leaving Bess with nine children to care for: Elizabeth (c.1582-May 1615), Adrian (1599-October 1617), Richard (1589-1655), Thomas (b. 1591), Anne (1591-May 1616), William (b.1594), Mary (b.1595), John (1597-August 1603), and George (b.1600). She had lost two children before that, an earlier William (September 1590-October 1592) and another infant son . She took over the mercery business. She signed documents with her mark, an E entwined with a Q. And according to Greer’s book, she took an active role in Stratford politics, even leading a gang of women to tear down enclosures built by a greedy landholder.
see ELIZABETH BRAY
ANNE PICKERING (1514-April 25, 1582)
Anne Pickering was the daughter and heir of Sir Christopher Pickering of Killington, Westmorland and Escrick, Lancashire (d. September 7, 1516) and Jane Lewknor (c.1503-1547). She was heiress to great estates in Yorkshire, Middlesex, Cumberland, and Westmorland. After her father’s death, she was the ward of Sir Richard Weston, who married her to his son, Francis (1511-May 17, 1536). Sir Francis Weston of Sutton in Woking, Surrey was one of the men accused with Anne Boleyn and executed. Together with his mother, Anne pleaded with the king to spare his life, even though he may have been unfaithful to her, if not with the queen, then with Margaret Shelton, one of Anne Boleyn's ladies in waiting, with whom he was said to be in love. Weston sent a letter to his family, asking for forgiveness, "especial to my wife." The theory has also been advanced that Francis Weston admitted to "abominations" on the scaffold because he was a homosexual. Anne married twice more, first to Sir Henry Knyvett of Charlton, Wiltshire and East Horsley, Surrey (1510-March 1547) and then, in 1549, to John Vaughan of London (d. June 25, 1577). Her children were Sir Henry Weston (1534/5-April 11, 1592) and Anne Weston (d. before 1602), Sir Henry (1539-June 14, 1598), Elizabeth, Alice, Catherine (1543-December 20, 1622), Thomas (1545-1622), and Margaret Knyvett, and Francis (d. July 15, 1597) and Frances Vaughan (c.1562-1647). She also had another son and another daughter by Vaughan. During her marriage to Knyvett, she was involved in two disputes concerning her mother, one over inheritance, and one in which she was charged with, essentially, home invasion. The latter case was heard in the Star Chamber. Anne claimed that her mother (known as Jane Pole or Poole from her second marriage) was afraid of her third husband, Sir William Barentyne, and that she had sent a message to Anne saying she was "very evill kepte" and surrounded by servants who kept "very Dishonest Rule." According to the summary found in the unpublished PhD dissertation Image and Reality: the Lives of Aristocratic Women in Early Tudor England by Jennifer Ann Rowley-Williams, Anne traveled to Bramley, near Shalford in Surrey, to visit her mother. She was accompanied by her son-in-law, Francis Kelway, and a friend, Lady Rogers. Finding the outer door locked, Anne ordered her servant to force it open. Then, according to Anne's account, she went in, saw her mother, asked for her blessing, and then asked her to send for one of her waiting women, Philippa Turke, so that Anne might rebuke her for the "many obprobriouse words" Philippa had used against her (Anne). Kelway found Philippa in hiding and brought her to the other women, whereupon Anne slapped Philippa. Jane's account of the incident, however, differs considerably from her daughter's. Jane claimed that Anne neglected her and, concerning the visit to Bramley, said that Anne and her party broke down seven doors in succession to get in and then chased Jane and her servants from room to room, terrorizing them. Rather than just slapping Philippa, Anne beat her severely while two servants held her down. Afterward, Jane claimed, Jane and her servants were in fear for their lives. No decision in the case is given. The History of Parliament entry for Francis Keilway (sic), who was married to Anne's daughter, Anne Weston, says that Keilway and his wife lived in his mother-in-law’s house c.1548-c.1553 and that after Knyvett died, Keilway and an accomplice robbed her of £500 worth of silver. He was outlawed but pardoned the following March. During Anne's third marriage, while her son Henry Weston was still a minor, Anne and John Vaughan lived at Sutton Place, Surrey, the Weston family seat. After 1558, Vaughan bought Sutton-on-Derwent, Yorkshire. A transcript of her will, dated April 13, 1581 and proved May 18, 1582, can be found at www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Portrait: carved head from marriage chest c.1530 (Saffron Walden Museum).
ELIZABETH PICKERING (d. October 1562)
Elizabeth Pickering’s parents are unknown. She was the first woman to print books in England, according to an article by Barbara Kreps in the Winter 2003 Renaissance Quarterly. Her first husband was named Jackson and she had two daughters by him, Luce and Elizabeth, when she married Robert Redman of London (d. October 1540) sometime after the burial of Redman’s first wife on September 29, 1536. When Redman died, his widow took over his shop at the sign of the George in Fleet Street, next to the church of St. Dunstans in the West, and published in her own right for about ten months, producing about a dozen books. Redman left behind three minor daughters, Mildred (b. September 1532), Katherine (d. between 1541 and 1544), and Alice (c.1539-1586+), who was Elizabeth’s child. By October 1541, Elizabeth had sold the press to William Middleton and remarried, taking as her third husband William Cholmeley (c. 1510-1546), a lawyer. After his death, she married his kinsman, Randolph (the History of Parliament calls him Ralph) Cholmeley (d.April 25,1563), another lawyer, who became Recorder of London in 1554. Elizabeth was buried in the Church of St. Dunstan in the West. She had no children by her last husband.
ELIZABETH PICKERING (1555-c.1598)
Elizabeth Pickering was the daughter John Pickering of Titchmarsh, Northamptonshire and Lucia or Lucy Kaye (c.1533-c.1565). She married Robert Throckmorton of Warboys and Ellington, Huntingdonshire (1551-1630/1), by whom she had five daughters and two sons: Joan (christened May 23, 1574), Gabriel (April 9, 1577-1626), Mary (christened May 18, 1578), Elizabeth (christened July 19, 1579), Jane (christened August 21, 1580), Grace (christened March 10, 1581) and Robert (June 30, 1583-March 1655). In November 1589, her daughter Jane fell into a fit and accused a neighbor, Alice Samuel, of being a witch. At first Elizabeth and her husband dismissed the claim, but eventually all of their daughters and seven female servants suffered similar symptoms. On Friday, February 13, 1590, Gilbert Pickering, Elizabeth's brother, arrived at Warboys. He was the one who convinced the family that the girls were victims of witchcraft. A full account can be found in The Witches of Warboys by Philip C. Almond. According to Anne Reiber DeWindt's article, "Witchcraft and Conflicting Visions of the Ideal Village Community" in the Journal of British Studies (1995, Vol. 34 #4, pp. 427-473), by 1598/9 the family had left Warboys. A legal document at that time set aside a close at Warboys for the use of "such woman as will be Robert's wife at the time of his death," suggesting that Elizabeth Pickering Throckmorton had already died. He remarried in 1600.
see ELIZABETH CERVINGTON
FRANCES PICKERING (c.1599-October 14, 1673)
Frances Pickering was the natural daughter of Sir Christopher Pickering of Threlkeld, Cumberland (c.1556-January 15, 1620/1) and a woman named Todhunter. On October 26, 1620, at Ormside, Westmorland, she married John Dudley of Gray's Inn and Yanwath, Cumberland (c.1573-March 1622/3). Pickering had left his Ormside properties to his sisters, Winifred and Mary, but they seem to have come to Frances during her marriage to Dudley. She remained a widow for some ten years before marrying Cyprian Hilton of Burton, Westmorland (1606-December 22, 1652) in 1632. They had four children: Christopher, John, Mary, and Andrew.
HESTER PICKERING (d. May 8, 1592)
Hester Pickering was the illegitimate daughter of Sir William Pickering of Oswald Kirk (1516/17-January 4, 1575), a diplomat and ambassador who never married. In his will, Pickering directed that Hester live and be educated in the house of his executor, Thomas Unton. She was his residual heir and he specified that his library be kept intact to pass to her future husband. On September 1, 1575 at Boughton Malherbe, Kent, Hester was married to Edward Wotton, 1st baron Wotton of Marley (1548-1626). Their children were Thomas, 2nd baron (1587-1630) and Philippa. Portrait: unknown artist, c.1580.
see JANE LEWKNOR
ELIZABETH PIERREPOINT or PIERREPONT (1568-1604+)
Elizabeth Pierrepoint was the daughter of Sir Henry Pierrepoint (1545-1615) of Holme Pierrepoint, Nottinghamshire, and Frances Cavendish (June 18, 1548-1632), the granddaughter of Bess of Hardwick, and the godchild of Mary, queen of Scots. As a child of four she joined the household of the captive Mary, who was in the keeping of Bess of Hardwick and her fourth husband, the earl of Shrewsbury. Queen Mary called the child Mignonne and was very fond of her. So was her grandmother, who called her Bessie. Bessie remained in the queen of Scots's household even after Mary was removed from Shrewsbury's keeping. When Bessie was seventeen (c.1585), her grandmother was promoting a marriage for her with one of the earl of Northumberland's sons, but nothing came of it. Beginning in January 1586, letters were being smuggled in and out of Chartley, where the queen of Scots was at that time imprisoned, in watertight containers inside beer barrels. Mary's secretary, Claude Nau, also used this method to send messages to Bessie after she had left Queen Mary's service, possibly to wait upon Queen Elizabeth. According to one account, Bessie's father approved of the match with Nau, but Bessie refused him. Rosalind K. Marshall, in Queen Mary's Women, however, says the Pierreponts were horrified when they heard of Nau's interest and, in July 1586, asked that their daughter be sent home, and that Mary then claimed she had been trying to persuade Queen Elizabeth to take Bessie into her household. It is not clear if Bessie went to court or not. In writing about young Bessie, Mary implied that she looked upon the girl like a daughter, but that she also saw "too much of her grandmother's nature in her behavior every way, notwithstanding all my pains for the contrary, and therefore now would be sorry to have her bestowed upon any man I wish good unto." A recent biography of Bess of Hardwick by Mary S. Lovell states that Bessie did not marry until 1604, when she was thirty-five, and identifies her husband as Thomas Erskine (1566-1639), who was created viscount Fenton in 1606 and earl of Kellie in 1619. Erskine records agree that his second wife was Elizabeth Pierrepoint, daughter of Sir Henry of Holme Pierrepoint, and further that she died on April 27, 1621, after which Erskine married a third time. However, earlier biographers give Bessie a different husband, Richard Stapleton of Templehurst (d.c.1614), six children (Gilbert, Epiphanius, Sir Robert, Jane, Elizabeth, and Grace), and a death date of November 27, 1648. This is supported by Stapleton genealogies. It is possible Bessie married Stapleton and then Erskine, if c.1614 is a mistake for 1604, but that does not account for the difference in death dates.
ANNE PIERREPONT (c.1554-1587+)
Anne Pierrepont was the daughter of George Pierrepont of Holme Pierrepont, Nottinghamshire (July 16, 1510-March 21, 1564) and his second wife, Winifred Thwaites (d.1587+). Her first husband was Thomas Thorold of Marston, Lincolnshire. After his death she married Francis Beaumont of Gracedieu, Leicestershire (c.1540-April 22, 1598). Their children were Henry (c.1581-July 13, 1605), John (c.1582-1627), Francis (1584-March 6, 1615/6), the playwright, and Elizabeth. In 1584, when the correspondence of her brother Gervaise was seized, Anne was interrogated by Adrian Stokes and Thomas Cave about her Papist connections. Both her mother and her mother-in-law (Elizabeth Hastings) were well known recusants. She died before her husband but the exact date is unknown.
see ELIZABETH BABINGTON; ELIZABETH PIERREPOINT
GRACE PIERREPONT (d.1651)
Grace Pierrepont was the daughter of Henry Pierrepont (1545-1615) and Frances Cavendish (June 18, 1548-June 1632). On August 1, 1593 (or April 2, 1594) she married Sir George Manners of Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (1573-April 23, 1623). Their children were John, 8th earl of Rutland (June 10, 1604-September 29, 1679), Henry, Roger, Elizabeth (d.1637), Eleanor (d. October 23, 1679), Frances (d.1652), Dorothy, and Mary. Lady Manners founded a free grammar school for the poor children of Bakewell and Great Rowsley in 1636 and endowed it by a deed dated May 12, 1637. She is said to have lived to the age of 90, but as this would place her birth in 1561, the year before her parents married, that is probably an exaggeration. Portrait: possible portrait has also been identified (by Janet Arnold in Patterns of Fashion) as her daughter, Lady Dorothy Manners, attributed to William Larkin c.1615-1620; miniature at Belvoir Castle; death mask kept under glass at Haddon Hall; effigy on her husband's tomb in Vernon Chapel, Bakewell Church.
see WINIFRED THWAITES
ANNE PIERS (d.1581+) (maiden name unknown)
Anne Piers is known only through one record, that of her interrogation by Sir Richard Grenville in 1581 on charges of receiving stolen goods and witchcraft. She was found innocent of the latter charge, but guilty of selling plate at Bodmin. Anne was the wife of William Piers and the mother of Captain John Piers of Padstow, Cornwall (c.1560-1582), a notorious pirate captured in 1581 at Studland, Dorset. Anne’s abilities as a witch had been given credit for his success up to that point. Piers himself was imprisoned but escaped from Dorchester gaol. When he was recaptured, he was executed. His mother’s fate does not seem to have been recorded.
see JANE or JOAN ROMONDBYE
see ELIZABETH IWARDBY
MARGERY PIGOTT (1509-1587)
Margery Pigott was the daughter of Thomas Pigott of Whaddon, Buckinghamshire (c.1460-1520), justice of the assize, and his second wife, Elizabeth Iwardby (August 24, 1475-c.1549). Her first husband, married c.1525, was Thomas Cotton of Landwade, Cambridgeshire (1503-1526). Her second, by a marriage license dated July 1, 1527, was Walter Hendley of Cranbrook, Kent (d. March 1550), as his second wife. They had no children, but she had three stepdaughters, Anne, Ellen, and Elizabeth. Hendley, a justice of the peace and a solicitor, was knighted in 1547. In 1540, he acquired the lease of the bishop of Bangor's manor in Holborn for eighty-nine years at a yearly rent of one red rose. In 1545, he bought property in Lincolnshire, Kent, Middlesex, Oxfordshire, and Radnorshire. Hendley's will left Margery his Cranbrook property for life and she was one of the executors. The will was proved in April 1550 but there were doubts about its authenticity that were not resolved until March 1551. In the interim, Margery appears to have remarried, but her third husband is a mystery. His name is recorded variously as Mardin and Warden. She continued to be called Lady Hendley. It must have been a very short marriage because in 1551, she married Thomas Roberts of Glassenbury, Kent (July 10, 1494-1557). Thomas was the older brother of John Roberts (1531-1573), a neighbor of the Hendleys in Cranbrook. John was married to Margery's neice, Elizabeth Pigott, daughter of her brother Robert Pigott. On August 11, 1573, when John Roberts made his will, Margery and Elizabeth were living together. He left lands in Hawkhurst and Ticehurst to his wife so long as she and Margery continued to share a house, although part of the income was to go to maintain their son Thomas. There was also a younger son, Walter. After Lady Hendley's death, Thomas was to receive other benefits and Elizabeth was to occupy a house at Boarzell in Ticehurst. His executors were also to raise £100 from the sale of wood in Adams Wood and other woods belonging to the farm of Flimwell, to be supplemented if necessary from Lady Hendley's woods at Boarzell, to keep his daughter Margery and be paid to her at eighteen or when she married. Elizabeth and her brother Francis Pigott were executors. The will was proved in November 20, 1576. Margery lived eleven years longer, but Elizabeth did survive her. The last mention of Elizabeth Roberts in surviving documents is c.1590.
see ALICE KINGSMILL
see JANE DYLLYCOTES
see JANE EMPSON
or PINKNEY (d. 1602+)
Catherine Pinckney was the mistress of Sir Edward Hoby (1560-March 1, 1617) and the mother of his only child, Peregrine (September 1602-May 6, 1679), who became Hoby’s heir.
see MARGARET BYSLEY
ANNE PLANTAGENT (November 2, 1474-November 12, 1511)
Anne Plantagenet was the third daughter of King Edward IV (1442-1483) and Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492). In a treaty signed on August 5, 1480, she was promised to Philip, son of Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, but the death of her father ended that alliance. In 1484, during the reign of her uncle, Richard III, she was betrothed to Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey (1473-August 25, 1554). Early in the reign of Henry VII, Anne was at court as an attendant to her sister, Elizabeth of York, and on February 4, 1495 she finally married Surrey at Greenwich. The queen settled an annuity of £120 pounds on her sister. According to Robert Hutchinson's House of Treason: The Rise and Fall of a Tudor Dynasty, this included an allowance of 20s/week for food and drink and the wages of two women, a maid, a gentleman, a yeoman, and three grooms. Anne also received £15 11s. 8d./year to maintain seven horses. In November 1510, Henry VIII granted Anne a number of properties seized from Edmund de la Pole, earl of Suffolk. With Surrey, Anne had at least four children, probably named Muriel, Catherine, Henry, and Thomas (1497-August 1508), but all of them died young and were buried in the Howard chapel of St. Mary's Church, Lambeth. Anne herself suffered from and died of tuberculosis. She was buried in the Cluniac abbey at Thetford, Norfolk. Portraits: Stained glass windows with her sisters in Canterbury and the church of St. Giles at Little Malvern Priory, Worcestershire. Shown here, from Canterbury, L-R: Elizabeth, Cecily, Anne, Katherine, and Mary (d.1482), daughters of Edward IV.
BRIDGET PLANTAGENET (November 10, 1480-1517)
Bridget Plantagenet was the tenth child of King Edward IV (1442-1483) and Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492). She was always intended for the church and sent to Dartford Priory at the age of seven. She became a nun there and was still there when she died. There is an unsubstantiated story that Bridget gave birth to an illegitimate daughter, Agnes, at Dartford in 1498, when she was eighteen. Until the death of Bridget's sister, Elizabeth of York, in 1503, the Crown did pay expenses for both Bridget and Agnes, who was known as Agnes of Eltham. See her entry for more details.
CECILY PLANTAGENET (March 20, 1469-August 24, 1507)
Cecily Plantagenet was the daughter of King Edward IV (1442-1483) and Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492). While her father was king, plans were made for her to marry Prince James of Scotland but the alliance was broken off before Edward’s death. Under Richard III, Cecily spent from April 1483 until March 1, 1484 in sanctuary at Westminster. King Richard provided her with a dowry of 200 marks per annum in land and arranged her marriage to Ralph Scrope of Upsall (c.1465-1515), but in 1486, the marriage was dissolved by order of the new king, Cecily’s brother-in-law, Henry VII, in 1486. That same year she carried Prince Arthur to the font at his christening and she carried her sister’s train at her coronation on November 25, 1487. In 1488, Cecily was married to Henry VII’s half-uncle, John, viscount Welles (d. February 9,1499). By Welles she had two daughters, Elizabeth (d.1598) and Anne (d.yng.). Cecily was at her sister’s court during her widowhood but gave up her social position to marry Thomas Kyme of Friskney, Lincolnshire in 1502. She did not have the king’s permission and he seized the Welles lands, in which she had a life interest, by way of punishment. The king’s mother, however, sheltered the newlyweds and negotiated a compromise the following year. They had a son, Richard, and a daughter, Margery (d.1537+), who is mentioned in the will of her "cousin," Lady Catherine Gordon. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Cecily.” Portraits: Burrell Collection, Glasgow; stained glass windows with her sisters in Canterbury and the church of St. Giles at Little Malvern Priory, Worcestershire. Shown here, from Little Malvern, L-R: Elizabeth Woodville, Cecily, Anne and Katherine.
see ELIZABETH GREY
Elizabeth Plantagenet was the daughter of Richard, duke of York (1411-x. December 30, 1460) and Cecily Neville (May 3,1415-June 1495). She married John de la Pole, 2nd duke of Suffolk (d.1491) by the beginning of 1458. She had a marriage portion of £1533, low for her station and the times, and part of it was still unpaid in 1472. She was the mother of John, earl of Lincoln (c.1460-1487), Edmund, earl of Suffolk (1472-x.1513), William (d.1539), Humphrey, Edward, Richard, who styled himself duke of Suffolk and was called "the White Rose" (d.1525), and four daughters. Because of her family connections, she was a victim of the Wars of the Roses and the de la Pole line continued to trouble the Tudor dynasty well into the reign of Henry VIII. Portrait: alabaster effigy at Wingfield, Suffolk.
Elizabeth Plantagenet was the second of three daughters of Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle (c.1464-March 3, 1542), an illegitimate son of King Edward IV, and Elizabeth Grey (c.1482-c.1525), widow of Sir Edmund Dudley. Thus she was half sister to John Dudley, later Duke of Northumberland, and spent part of her childhood (from 1533) in the Dudley household in England, rather than with her father and his second wife, Honor Grenville, in Calais. Negotiations for a marriage to Thomas Lovell (d.1567) were ongoing in 1534 but came to naught. In 1536, she married Sir Francis Jobson of Monkwick, Essex (1514-June 4, 1573). Jobson recorded that "I was married to my wife at the request of the duke, he promising that he would help me to a manor that my Lord Windsor had in Staffordshire. Being disappointed in the said manor, he borrowed a good part of my money." Their children were John (c.1548-1573+), Thomas (d. November 21, 1606), Henry, Mary, Edward (d.1573+) and Matthew. An account of Elizabeth's death, written down by one John Nettleton in 1591 and later copied by Clement Draper into his notebook, records that, in 1569, Lady Jobson was living in the Tower of London, where her husband was Lord Lieutenant. She was so ill that physicians sent by her nephew, Robert Dudley, and by Queen Elizabeth herself, concluded that she could not last above four days. Then the queen sent another physician, Burchard Kranich, to examine her. Kranich did not offer a cure, but he treated her by anointing her with civet oil as she sat by a warm fire and, according to Draper, kept her alive "nine or ten days beyond the physicians' resolution, and she was in as good reason and memory to read or write or speak her mind in anything as ever she could do in her life" and "died, her book in her hands, and was reading." One of her sons, an eye witness, passed this account to Nettleton who provided it to Draper.
FRANCES PLANTAGENET (1516-1550+)
Frances Plantagenet was the daughter of Arthur Plantagenet, viscount Lisle (c.1464-March 3, 1542) and Elizabeth Grey (c.1482-c.1525). In February 1538, she married her stepbrother, John Bassett (1518-1541). They had a daughter, Honor (b.1539), and a son, Arthur (1541-1586). After Bassett’s death, she married Thomas Monk or Monke of Potheridge, Devon (c.1515-before August 20, 1583). They had three sons and three daughters: Anthony, John, Francis, Margaret, Mary (b.1548), and Katherine.
see HONOR GRENVILLE
KATHERINE PLANTAGENET (c.1470-1487)
Katherine Plantagenet was the illegitimate daughter of Richard III (1452-1483), possibly by Katherine (d.1508+), wife of James Haute of Kinsbourne Hall at Harpenden, Hertfordshire. By a covenant dated February 27, 1484, Katherine was to marry, as his second wife, William Herbert, earl of Huntingdon (1455-1490). Her dowry in lands and lordships was 600 marks with the reversion of another 400 marks/year after the death of Lord Stanley. Until then, the 400 marks was to be made up from revenues of the lordships of Newport, Brecknock, and Hay. The couple had married by May of that year and received a joint annuity of £152 10s. 10p. in March 1485. Although some accounts have Katherine alive in June 1487, when she was reportedly arrested at Raglan, on November 25, 1487 her husband was listed as a widower. This probably means Katherine had died before that date, although an alternate explanation has him repudiating her to curry favor with Henry VII, who had defeated her father and seized the throne in 1485.
PLANTAGENET (August 14,
1479-November 15, 1527)
Katherine Plantagenet was the daughter of King Edward IV (1442-1483) and Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492). Early matches were proposed for her with a Spanish prince and with James, marquess of Ormond. After her father’s death she went into sanctuary in Westminster with her mother and sisters but afterward was at court, both under Richard III and Henry VII. She married Sir William Courtenay (c.1475-June 9,1511) in 1495. Her children were Edward (d.1502), Margaret (c.1499-April 14, 1526), and Henry (1496-1538). Shortly before the death of Katherine’s sister the queen in 1503, Courtenay was imprisoned in the Tower of London and attainted for treason for conspiring with Edmund de la Pole. Katherine remained at court and was chief mourner at her sister’s funeral. Courtenay was released and restored as earl of Devon when Henry VIII became king in 1509. After Devon's death from pleurisy, Katherine became a vowess, taking a vow of chastity before Richard Fitzjames, bishop of London, on July 13, 1511. On February 3, 1512, she was granted all the estates of the earldom of Devon for her lifetime. Her son was raised at court, and remained high in the new king’s favor for the remainder of Katherine’s lifetime, although he was later executed for treason. Katherine herself resided at Tiverton Castle, Devon, maintaining a large household there. She had an annual income of around £2750 and lived in style, including minstrels and no fewer than three fools among her retainers. She was buried in St. Peter’s. Tiverton. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Katherine.” Portraits: stained glass windows with her sisters in Canterbury and the church of St. Giles at Little Malvern Priory, Worcestershire (see above under Anne and Cecily Plantagenet).
PLANTAGENET (May 3,
1445-November 23, 1503)
Margaret Plantagenet was the daughter of Richard, duke of York (1411-x. December 30, 1460) and Cecily Neville (May 3,1415-June 1495). When her brother Edward was crowned as Edward IV of England, the choice of Margaret's husband became a political issue. In 1462, there were rumors that she would marry James III of Scotland. Later a marriage was proposed with Don Pedro of Portugal. On June 18, 1468, she left London, sailing from Margate on June 24 and arriving at Sluys the next day. She married Charles, duke of Burgundy (d. January 5, 1477) at Damme on July 3. She was described as tall, elegant, and fair haired, but she had brains as well as beauty. She was a patron of Caxton and encouraged education. She did not spend much time with her husband during their marriage and after his death made Mechelen her primary residence. In 1480, she visited England to help broker an alliance between her brother and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian, who was married to her stepdaughter. Margaret was responsible for the education of their son, Philip the Fair and after Henry Tudor became king of England, her court was a gathering place for Yorkist exiles. She encouraged the conspiracies of two pretenders to the English throne, Lambert Simnel in 1486 and Perkin Warbeck from February 1492 and possibly earlier. It was not until September 1498 that she finally accepted the monarchy of Henry VII. She died at Mechelen and was buried there in the house of the Observant Franciscans. Her tomb was destroyed late in the sixteenth century. Portraits: by school of S. Marmion; by H. van der Goes; portrait in the Metropolitan Museum, New York. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Margaret, duchess of Burgundy;" Christine Weightman, Margaret of York, the Diabolical Duchess.
MARGARET PLANTAGENET (August 14,1473-May 27, 1541)
Margaret Plantagenet was the daughter of George, duke of Clarence (d.1478), brother of Edward IV and Richard III, and Isabella Neville (d.1476). Her father died in the Tower of London, supposedly drowned in a butt of Malmsey. In 1490, she married Sir Richard Pole (d.1505) and by him had Henry (1492-x.December 9,1538), Arthur (d.1535), Reginald (1500-November 17,1558), Sir Geoffrey (1502-1558) and Ursula (c.1504-August 12,1570). Although her brother, Edward, Earl of Warwick, was also executed (on November 28, 1499), simply because he had a claim to the throne, Margaret was held in high esteem under the Tudors. In 1513, she was created countess of Salisbury in her own right. Henry VIII thought of her as a second mother and she was governess of his daughter, Mary, until December 1533. At various times, Margaret's household was ome to some of her granddaughters, Margaret Stafford and three Pole girls, daughers of the countess's sons Arthur and Geoffrey. After the Reformation, however, Margaret’s religious beliefs made her suspect and her royal blood, passed on to her children, eventually turned the king against the entire family. That her son Reginald became a Cardinal and, although in exile, actively worked to overthrow King Henry, was enough to cause the downfall of the Poles. In 1538, Margaret, her sons Sir Geoffrey and Henry (Baron Montagu), her daughter-in-law, and her grandson were all arrested. Her son was executed. Margaret was attainted for treason. She was held first at Cowdray Park and later in the Tower of London and in 1541, following a minor uprising in the north of England, to which she had no connection, was beheaded. She was beatified in 1886. Biography: Hazel Pierce, Margaret Pole; Oxford DNB entry under "Pole, Margaret." Portrait: in the NPG.
MARY PLOWDEN (d.1593+)
Mary Plowden was the daughter of Edmund Plowden of Plowden, Shropshire, Shiplake, Oxfordshire, and Burghfield, Berkshire (1519/20-1585) and Catherine Sheldon (d. before 1585). The History of Parliament describes her father as the "greatest and most honest lawyer of his day." At his death, Plowden made provision for Mary's dowry but did not specify an amount. He left her in the care of three women, Mary's maternal aunt, Philippa, widow of Anthony Pollard (d.1577), Mrs. Englefield—probably Margaret Fitton (1529-August 29, 1612) the mother of his former ward, Francis Englefield—and Mary's older sister, Anne, wife of Francis Perkins. Mary's brother Edmund, who died unmarried in August 1587, specified the amount of her dowry at £1000. She married Richard White of Hutton, Essex (1560-August 19, 1614). Their second son, Thomas White, alias Blacklow (1593-July 6, 1676), became famous as a secular priest. Their other children were probably Richard and Mary. One genealogy also lists a Lydia (b.1587). Most give a date for her Mary Plowden's marriage that is much too early, given the documentation relating to her dowry.
see MARGARET NEVILLE
see AGNES GASCOIGNE
ELIZABETH PLUMPTON (c.1454-September 21, 1506)
Elizabeth Plumpton was one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of William Plumpton of Plumpton, Yorkshire (1435-March 29, 1461) and Elizabeth Clifford (c.1432-1466+). She married John Sotehill/Soothill/Suttell of Dewesbery (d.1493) and was the mother of Henry of Stoke Faston, Leicestershire (1470-1505), John, Robert, Thomas, Arthur, Gerard, Elizabeth, and Anne. She mentions all of these in her will, proved February 16, 1506/7, but her heirs for the Plumpton inheritance were the twin daughters of her late son, Henry, Elizabeth and Joan Sotehill (b. May 21, 1505). Elizabeth Plumpton and this inheritance are at the heart of the Plumpton Correspondence because the claims of Elizabeth and her sister, Margaret (wife of Sir John Rockliffe), eventually led to the imprisonment of Sir Robert Plumpton for debt. The legal wrangling continued long after Elizabeth’s death.
see ISABEL BABTHORPE; ISABEL NEVILLE
MADELEINE or MAUD
see MADELEINE or MAUD BABINGTON
Pocahontas, whose real name was Matoaka (Pocahontas was a nickname) was the daughter of Wahunsonacock (d.1618), chieftain of the Powhatan tribe in what is now Virginia. There are many legends surrounding Pocahontas, but the basic facts are that she met Captain John Smith when he was taken prisoner by her father in December 1607 and later spent time at Jamestown. Around 1610, she is said to have married another Indian, Kocoum, and may have had as many as two children by him. In April 1613, she was taken prisoner by Captain Samuel Argall in order to force her father to accept a peace treaty. Just a year later, she was baptised and renamed Rebecca and soon after married English gentleman John Rolfe (1585-1622). They had one son, Thomas (January 30, 1614/15-c.1675). In June 1616, the Rolfes arrived in England. By then, Pocahontas was said to speak fluent English. She was received by the queen at Whitehall and met the king at a masque. Unfortunately, the English climate did not agree with her. She was suffering from either tuberculosis or pneumonia by the time she and her husband were ready to leave England. She died at Gravesend, Kent and was buried on March 21, 1617 in St. George's Church. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Pocahontas"; Frances Mossiker, Pocahontas: The Life and Legend. Portrait: line engraving by Simon de Passe,1616; oil painting after that engraving.
see CATHERINE BRYDGES
see CONSTANCE PAKENHAM
ELEANOR POLE (c.1463-1520+)
Eleanor Pole was the daughter of Geoffrey Pole (1431-1474) and Edith St. John. She married Sir Ralph Verney (c. 1452-1528) in 1477 and, as Lady Verney, was a waiting gentlewoman to both Elizabeth of York and Catherine of Aragon. She was one of Elizabeth of York’s favorite ladies. She was also, as the daughter of one of Margaret Beaufort’s half sisters, a cousin to Henry VII and his children. She and her husband accompanied Mary Tudor to Scotland in 1503. She had a son, John (1488-1540) by Verney. She was granted an annuity of £20 by Henry VIII and was still receiving it in 1520.
see ELIZABETH MOTON; ELIZABETH WINGFIELD
see JANE LEWKNOR
JANE POLE (c.1570-1625+)
Jane Pole (Paule/Pool/Poul/Powle/Powell) was the daughter of Thomas Pole of Bishop Hall, Middlesex. She married three times, first to John Fuller, second to John Bussey, and third to Thomas Mansell or Mansell of Margam Abbey, Glamorganshire (1556-1631), as his second wife. They had one child, Mary (b.c.1600). Portrait: c.1625 with Thomas Mansell; another shows the couple with their daughter.
KATHERINE POLE (d.September 23,1576)
Katherine Pole was the daughter of Henry Pole, baron Montagu (1492-1538) and Jane Neville (d.1538) and married Francis Hastings (1514-June 20,1561), son and heir of the earl of Huntingdon, in 1532, at the same time her sister, Winifred, married his brother Thomas. In 1538, Katherine’s father was executed for treason. Her grandmother, Lord Montagu’s mother, Margaret Plantagenet, countess of Salisbury, was executed on the same charge in 1541. Their only crime was having a claim to the throne. The countess of Salisbury was the daughter of George, duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV and Richard III. Although Katherine’s husband was under suspicion for a time, he was careful to stay out of politics. He succeeded his father, becoming 2nd earl of Huntingdon in 1544. Their children were Henry, 3rd earl (1535-December 14,1594), William, George, 4th earl (c.1540-December 30,1604), Edward (d.1603), Francis (d.1610), Walter (b.c.1554), Catherine (August 11, 1542-1580+), Frances (d.1574), Elizabeth (d.1621), Anne, and Mary (c.1552-1584+). The oldest boy, Henry, was a schoolmate of Henry VIII’s son, the future Edward VI and the family fortunes improved during Edward’s short reign. When Mary Tudor became queen, Katherine promptly contacted her uncle, Cardinal Reginald Pole, who had been in exile since 1538, and upon his return to England asked him to be the godfather of her youngest son, Walter. When Katherine’s husband died, he left her with five sons and five daughters, all but the oldest boy and girl under age. It was her oldest son, the new earl, however, who had the responsibility for supporting them and arranging their marriages. Katherine assisted in this financially. In 1562, she leased him all her lands except the manor of Lubbesthorpe, where she lived until her death, for an annuity of £960 and his promise to double his sisters’ dowries. This lease was cancelled in 1564. In exchange Katherine granted him the lease of the manor of Stokenham in Devon and gave him permission to sell some of her lands in Cornwall. In 1574, she assigned the park of Ware, Hertfordshire to him (he needed to pledge property for his debts to the crown) and received in return an annuity of £33. 6s. 8d. Most of her estates, however, remained in her possession. She remained a Catholic sympathizer, if not actively a recusant, even though her oldest son was a staunch protestant. Her youngest son, Walter, shared her beliefs. Portrait: Katherine Pole appears in effigy on her tomb, lying next to her husband.
see MARGARET PLANTAGENET
see MARY HOLLAND
URSULA POLE (c.1504-August 12, 1570)
Ursula Pole was the daughter of Sir Richard Pole (d.1505) and Lady Margaret Plantagenet (August 14, 1473-x.May 27,1541). In 1515, she was considered as a bride for the duke of Milan but instead she married Henry Stafford (September 18,1501-April 30,1563), son of the duke of Buckingham, on October 20, 1518 (other sources say February 16,1518/19). She had a dowry of 3000 marks to be paid in installments over six years with another 1000 marks to be added if her mother, by then countess of Salisbury in her own right, recovered certain properties from the Crown. The young couple were also supposed to acquire an estate worth 700 marks/year from her mother, and a further £500/year from his father but, by 1521, Buckingham had not yet made the arrangements. She was at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520, the same year she gave birth to her first child at Thornbury Castle, but after her father-in-law’s execution for treason the following year, she was not at court and was frequently in financial difficulties. In 1522 and 1523, she and her husband received joint grants of some of Buckingham's lands, but poverty was still a problem as late as 1537. She had at least thirteen children, twelve of them born before 1537, and each inherited a double claim to the throne. One, Thomas (1531-May 4,1557), tried to declare himself king in 1557, but his conspiracy failed for lack of support. Ursula was also the mother of Henry (d. January 1,1565), Dorothy (October 1, 1526-September 22,1604), Edward (January 17,1535-October 18,1613), Richard, Walter (c.1539-1571+), William, Elizabeth, Anne, Margaret, and Susan. Biography: included in Oxford DNB entry for her mother under "Pole, Margaret."
WINIFRED POLE (1525-February 22, 1602)
Winifred Pole was the daughter and coheir of Henry Pole, Lord Montagu (1492-x.1538) and Jane Neville (d.1538). In 1532, at the same time her sister Katherine married Francis Hastings, later earl of Huntingdon, Winifred married his younger brother Thomas of Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire (c.1515-1558). Winifred had a claim to the throne through her grandmother, Margaret Plantagenet, countess of Salisbury (x.1541), but that only led to the downfall of the entire family. Under Queen Mary, Winifred was restored in blood and regranted the manor of Clavering. Hastings wrote his will on March 28, 1558 and it was proved May 11, 1558. Winifred was executor. Later she was overseer for her uncle, Cardinal Reginald Pole. In around 1559, Winifred married Sir Thomas Barrington of Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex (1530-1581), by whom she had two sons, Francis (c.1565-July 3, 1628) and Henry (d.c.1590) and a daughter, Katherine (d. before 1602). She brought lands in Hertfordshire, Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and the Isle of Wight and the manor of Clavering, Essex to the marriage. The Barringtons entertained Queen Elizabeth at Hatfield Broad Oak in 1576 and again in 1578, and she granted them the manor of Bushey, Hertfordshire, which had previously belonged to Winifred's grandmother. Thomas Barrington wrote his will on February 6, 1581 and it was proved on May 2, 1581. Winifred was one of the executors, but Henry Hastings, earl of Huntingdon, Winifred’s nephew, later known as "the Puritan earl," was made trustee of her two younger children, Henry and Katherine. It was probably the earl who later arranged for Katherine to marry William Bourchier of Benningborough, Yorkshire. In 1582, he urged his aunt, who held the parsonage of Rowley, Yorkshire, to turn over the appointment of a minister to someone with Protestant leanings and she appears to have complied with his wishes. She was for many years a recusant, but eventually her son Francis persuaded her to conform to the Church of England. She is said to have removed the golden crucifix she wore and given it to him, whereupon he had it made into rings on which were engraved the lines "Blessed be that light/That gave me sight/Of false Devotion/And doth direct/Me to affect/The true Religion." In about 1584, she gave her son the leases of the parsonages of Hatfield and of some lands in Stansfield Park. Winifred is referred to in the documents relating to this transaction as "the lady Winifred Hastings, widow, lately wife of Sir Thomas Barrington, Knight" and signed her name "Winifriyd Hastyngs."
see MARY FITTON
see JANE GROVE
MARGARET POLEY (c.1542-August 1625)
Margaret Poley was the daughter of John Poley of Badley, Suffolk (1511-October 20, 1589) and Anne Wentworth (d. August 28, 1575). In about 1562, she married Sir Thomas Palmer of Wingham, Kent (1540-January 7, 1625), by whom she had six sons and five daughters, including Thomas (d.1608), Jane (c.1565-before 1634), Margaret (d. 1632+), Henry (d.yng.), Maybell (1575-1597) Roger, Frances (d.yng.), Mary (d. yng.), John (d.yng.), and James (1584-March 15, 1657). Margaret and Thomas were married for sixty-two years and kept "open Christmases" at Wingham for sixty of those years in a row. She survived her husband by only a few months. Portrait: effigy at Wingham.
see ELIZABETH LECHE
JANE POLLARD (c.1500-1559+)
Jane Pollard was the second daughter of Sir Lewis Pollard of King’s Nympton, Devon (d.1526), Judge of the Common Pleas, and Anne or Agnes Hext (1468-1561). In 1520, she married Sir Hugh Stukeley or Stucley of Affeton Castle, Devon (1496-January 6, 1559), a knight of the body to Henry VIII. Her son Thomas (c.1520-August 4, 1578) is sometimes said to have been one of Henry VIII’s bastards, but there is no foundation for this story. Philippa Jones’s The Other Tudors: Henry VIII’s Mistresses and Bastards states that Thomas was the third of Jane’s five sons and six daughters and suggests one or two opportunities the king may have had to sleep with her. She further argues that the fact that Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth did not prosecute Thomas as they might have as proof that they knew he was their half brother. Like most stories of Henry VIII’s mistresses and bastards, this one has no solid evidence to support it. Jane’s other children were Elizabeth, Anne (d.c.1567), Mary, Agnes, Audrey, Katherine, Lewis (1529-December 1, 1581), George, Hugh, Amias, and Nicholas.
see MARY GREY
see ELIZABETH MORE
see MARIA HEYMAN
see DOROTHY CAVE
see ELEANOR LEWKNOR
ELINOR POOLE (c.1570-c.1647)
Elinor Poole was the daughter of Sir Henry Poole of Sapperton, Gloucestershire (1541-1616) and Anne Wroughton. In 1589, she married Sir Richard Fettiplace of Besselsleigh and Appleton, Berkshire (1564-July 11, 1615). Their children were John (1590-1619), Anne, Henry, Elizabeth and two other daughters. In 1604, Lady Fettiplace compiled of a book on household management that included many recipes collected from friends and a great many cures for ailments as varied as insomnia and the plague. Late in life, Lady Fettiplace remarried, taking as her second husband a Gloucester man named Edward Rogers (d.1623). Biography: included in Hilary Spurling, ed., Elinor Fettiplace’s Receipt Book (1986); Oxford DNB entry under "Fettiplace [née Poole; other married name Rogers], Elinor." Portrait: effigy in Sapperton Church.
see GRISELDA NEVILLE
see ANNE HOPTON
see JANE WYNDHAM
see MARY GYLL
see AMY ADAMS
see ANNE DUDLEY
see JANE STRADLING
JANE POPYNCOURT (d.1528+)
Records first place Jane Popyncourt in England in 1498 as a French-speaking damsel assigned to teach that language to Henry VII’s two daughters, Margaret and Mary, through “daily conversation.” Nothing is known of her background. Some records identify her as French, others as Flemish. By 1502 she was one of Mary Tudor's maids of honor and in 1512 was earning 200s per annum as a member of Queen Catherine of Aragon's household. She became notorious during the stay of the duc de Longueville at the English court as a prisoner of war. Louis d’Orléans, 2nd duc de Longueville, marquis of Rothelin, count of Dunois, and lord of Beaugency (1480-August 1,1516) gained his title upon the death of his older brother, the first duke, in 1515. At that time he was the captain of one hundred gentlemen of the king’s horse. He had been married for ten years to Johanna of Baden-Hochberg (1480-1543) and had four children by her, the youngest born in 1513. Longueville was captured at the Battle of the Spurs and sent to England as a prisoner of war to wait for his ransom (100,000 crowns) to be paid. While there he took a mistress—Jane Popyncourt. After the death of Queen Anne of France, Longueville took an active role in negotiating the marriage of Louis XII of France and Henry VIII’s sister, Mary, and served as proxy bridegroom at the wedding at Greenwich Palace. The next day, his ransom having been paid, he left for France. Jane expected to journey to France as one of Mary's attendants and to be reunited with her lover there, but her name was struck off the list at the last moment by King Louis XII. It was the only name he crossed out, and he reportedly commented that she should be “burnt.” There is no adequate explanation for his antipathy. Some have suggested that Jane was unwelcome because she was Longueville’s mistress and his wife was already at the French court, but in France in those days it was not unusual for noblemen to have mistresses. Besides, those who committed adultery were not burnt. Burning was reserved for heresy, for those who murdered their husbands or their masters (petty treason), and for witches (in France—in England witches were hanged). Whatever caused King Louis to ban her from France, Jane was forced to remain at the English court. There she is recorded as participating in masques and apparently remained in the queen's household. In May 1516, some time after the death of King Louis and the return of Mary Tudor to England, Jane received a gift of £100 from King Henry and left England for France. Some accounts claim Jane was the king’s mistress, and the gift her reward, but she had long served the royal family and there is no need to look further for a reason. As for Jane’s lover, the duc de Longueville had been high in favor with Louis XII and continued to be so under his successor, Francis I. Both were his distant kinsmen. Longueville fought in the Battle of Marigano in 1515 and reportedly lost a brother there. He died of unknown causes at Beaugency on August 1, 1516, having made his will the previous day. Although Jane Popyncourt left England for France in late May of 1516, it is not known whether she was ever reunited with her lover. The story that he set her up at the Louvre and lived with her there for many years obviously has no basis in fact, since he died only a few months after she arrived. In addition, in 1516, the Louvre was a ruin. The court, when in Paris, resided at Les Tournelles. In any case, Jane settled in France and corresponded with Mary Tudor (by then duchess of Suffolk) for some years afterward, on occasion sending gifts to Mary’s children. Jane Popyncourt was still alive in 1528, when Mary asked her to use her influence at the French court on Mary’s behalf.
see DOROTHY FITZHERBERT
see ELIZABETH GIFFARD
MARGARET PORT (d.1613)
Margaret Port was the daughter of Sir John Port of Etwall (d. July 6, 1557) and Elizabeth Giffard (d. before 1557). She married Sir Thomas Stanhope of Shelford (d.1596). Their children were Sir John (d.1611), Edward, Thomas, and Anne (1576-1651). According to the theory put forth in the Edward De Vere Newsletter (#40-44), she may have been the Lady Stanhope, who was one of the fourteen ladies in attendance at an entertainment put on by Alice Spencer, countess of Derby, sometime between 1600 and 1604. If so, she is the subject of the verses that begin in "O Philomela, favyre and wise." Margaret made her will on March 27, 1613, at which time she was living in Thurland House in Nottingham. The entire will can be found at Oxford-Shakespeare.com.
JOAN PORTMAN (c.1565-September 13, 1633)
Joan Portman was the daughter of Sir Henry Portman (d.1590) and Jane Michell. In about 1593, she married John Wyndham (c.1558-April 1, 1645). They were the parents of John (d.c.1649), Thomas, Francis, George, Humphrey, Joan, Rachel, Anne, Florence, Margery, Henry (1583-1613), Hugh (1603-July 27, 1684), and Wadham (b.1609). Portrait: by Hieronimo Custodis, 1610; brass at Watchet, Somerset.
JOAN PORTMAN (d. 1623+)
Joan Portman was the daughter of Sir John Portman (d.1612) and Anne Gifford (d.1652). She married Sir George Speke of Whitelackington and Ollington, Somerset. They had at least three children, Elizabeth, Philippa (b.1600), and George (b.1623). Portrait: the 1592 portrait sometimes said to be Joan is her mother-in-law, Philippa Rosewell.
MARY PORTMAN (d.1604+)
Mary Portman was the daughter of Sir William Portman (d.1557) and Elizabeth Gilbert. In 1556, she married Sir John Stawell of Cothelstone, Somerset (d.1603), a wealthy landowner and local justice of the peace. Within a short time after the marriage, Mary took up with Sir John's servant, John Stalling, and for the next several years apparently carried on an affair right under her husband's nose, "visiting his couch early and late, and walking and sitting alone with him in places and at times . . . fit and suitable for . . . lawless loves." The servants knew she had "soiled her marriage bed with marks of shame and had carnal knowledge with him, and often . . . and slept with the same John on one and the same bed often." Stalling bribed some of the other servants, including Elizabeth Goore (with clothing including ruffs, gloves, a pair of black satin sleeves, and a cloak) and Arthur Guntrey (with clothing and cash). Reports indicate that on occasion Mary would leave her nuptial bed and go to her lover, who either had a chamber in the same house and a house of his own at Cothelstone, or both, suggesting to Dr. A. L. Rowse, who discusses the case in his The Elizabethan Renaissance: The Life of the Society, that he was an upper servant, perhaps the steward. Mary became pregnant by her lover in 1561 and used drugs to cause an abortion. It was only after she went on to sleep with other menservants, and after Stawell met another woman, Frances Dyer, and wished to marry her, that he attempted to obtain a divorce. This was difficult in Protestant England. The suit was first brought in the consistory court at Wells. There Mary and her friends opposed it. Then the case went to the Court of Delegates, where a judicial separation was granted in 1565, but not a divorce. At some point, Mary gave birth to a daughter, but Stawell doubted the girl was his. The local bishop, of Bath and Wells, wrote to Archbishop Parker in support of allowing Stawell to divorce Mary and remarry, even though Mary was still living, but matters dragged on until April of 1572, when the archbishop finally granted Stawell license to remarry. In November 1572, Mary sued Stawell in the Court of Arches for restitution. At the same time, the Court of Audience charged Stawell with cohabiting with a gentlewoman as his wife when his former wife was still living. Stawell then offered Archbishop Parker a bribe of £100 and someone else in the Parker household £200 for their support, but when he refused to say whether he had remarried or not, the archbishop had him jailed. At this point, Sir Edward Dyer, the second Lady Stawell's brother, intervened, coming to an agreement with Mary's brother, Sir Henry Portman, and with Stawell. This involved paying Mary a £600 bribe not to contest the marriage further. Sir John and his second wife were then able to live together without censure for the rest of their lives. Mary, however, outlived her former husband, and his son by his second wife. His heir was a child of three. In 1604, Mary petitioned for recognition of her marriage to Stawell and the restoration of her dower rights. She succeeded in winning both.
ANNE POTTEN (x.1556) (maiden name unknown)
Called Agnes Potten in Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Anne Potten, wife of Robert Potten of Ipswich (a friend of wealthy merchant Henry Tooley), was a Protestant martyr burnt at the state on Ipswich Cornhill. She and another young mother, Joan Trunchfield, wife of a shoemaker Michael Trunchfield, were arrested on September 1, 1555 and accused of taking food to imprisoned Protestant preacher Robert Samuel. They were tried in October, excommunicated in December and burnt in either February or March of 1556.
see MARY TICHBORNE
see ELIZABETH KENN
see KATHERINE NORRIS
HONORA POUND (1539-1593)
Honora Pound was the daughter and coheir of Anthony Pound of Drayton in Farlington, Hampshire (1514-1547) and Anne Wingfield (c.1515-c.1560). A license was issued for her marriage to Henry Radcliffe of Portsmouth (1530-December 14, 1593) dated February 6, 1549. He was the second son of the 2nd earl of Sussex. He was knighted in 1553 and succeeded his brother as 4th earl in 1583. Honora and her sister came into their inheritance in Hampshire in May 1553. Her husband was in Ireland for most of the period from 1557-1565. They appear to have had only one child, Robert, 5th earl (June 12, 1573-September 22,1629), although some genealogies name a second son, James (d.1632) and others a daughter who married Thomas Dykes. The Mary Radcliffe who married Thomas Dykes in c.1580, and apparently used Radcliffe as her given name, appears to have been Honora Pound's sister-in-law rather than her daughter.
EMME POUNDER (d. June 17, 1564) (maiden name unknown)
Emme or Emma, whose parentage is unknown, was probably born c. 1480. She married Thomas Pounder of Ipswich (d. 1525), who was master of a ship that sailed to Iceland in 1506 and traded with the Low Countries in 1516. He served as one of Ipswich's coroners from 1515 until 1522. Their children were Richard, Joan (d.1580), Elizabeth, Agnes (d. before 1564), Thomas (d.1547) and three more daughters who died young. At the time her husband died, only the two youngest, Agnes and Thomas, were underage. In the will Thomas made eighteen days before he died, he left Emme his house in the parish of St. Mary Caye until her death and another house in St. Clement's parish. She was to hold what was due to Agnes and Thomas in trust until they were of age. As a widow, Emme continued to export and import goods. In 1530 she was one of those who sent three vessels to the Low Countries, trading cloth for iron, nails, oil, soap, woad, alum and thread. In 1537 she was in possession of two bales of cloth that John Humphrey had brought to Ipswich from London. By the reign of Queen Mary, Emme and her daughter Joan had apparently left Quay parish, the church where the family had been accustomed to worship and where a memorial brass to her and her husband had been placed, to worship instead at St. Clement's. In May 1556 they were listed in "complaints against such as favoured the Gospell in Ipswich" under "Such as observe not Ceremonies." Joan Pounder Barber, a widow, and her daughter Thomasine "refused to behold the elevation of the sacrement" and "Mistress Ponder, mother to Joan Barber" was cited for "the same fault." Emme made her first will in January 1562, leaving her grandson Henry as the only named beneficiary. On June 3, 1564, however, she made a new will, this one including a number of bequests and leaving Henry only a featherbed. Both wills were probated, one in Norwich and the other in Canterbury, but on July 17, 1565 the Canterbury probate was annulled "because of the deceit of Henry Ponder." Emme was buried in the churchyard at St. Clement's on June 19, 1564. Portrait: brass formerly in St. Mary Quay church, Ipswich and moved to Ipswich Museums in 1948. Biographical information in this entry comes from "The Pounder Memorial in St. Mary at the Quay Church, Ipswich" by John Blatchly and Peter Northeast.
see ELINOR CORRIATT
see ANNE WIGMORE
see ELIZABETH WOODHOUSE
see MARGARET TURNER
see JANE ORWELL
see ANNE WEST
see CATHERINE MARNEY
see ISABEL SCOTT
JANE POYNINGS (c.1482-November 7, 1539+)
Jane (or Mary or Joan) Poynings was the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Poynings (1459-October 22, 1521). She married Thomas Fiennes de Clinton, 8th baron Clinton of Marstoke (1490-August 7, 1517) and was the mother of Edward (1512-January 16, 1585), who later became earl of Lincoln, and Barbara and Isabel, who appear to have died young. Her second husband, to whom she was married on July 4, 1519, was Sir Robert Wingfield (1464-March 18, 1539). As Wingfield's wife, and as his widow, Lady Clinton lived in Calais. In his will, made March 15, 1538 and proved November 12, 1539, he left her a scarlet cloak, £100 in silver plate and, for life, everything in his house near the Boulogne gate in Calais, except what he possessed when he married her. He also had a house in London, on Lombard's Hill. She had no children by her second husband. Elizabeth Norton, in her biography of Jane's daughter-in-law, Bessie Blount, presents a convincing case for Jane to have been the Lady Clinton named to Anne of Cleves's household in 1539/40. She would have joined the entourage in Calais to journey to England.
ALICE POYNTZ (d.1606?)
Alice Poyntz was the youngest daughter of John Poyntz of Addersley, Gloucestershire (c.1485-November 29, 1544) and his first wife, Elizabeth Browne (d. by 1544). The marriage settlement for his marriage to his second wife, Margaret Saunders (1512-c.1563/4), is dated May 1, 1544 and he wrote his will on June 1 of that same year, in which he named Alice among his children, which seems to make it clear that she was the child of his first wife. Poyntz left £40 to each of his daughters upon their coming of age or their marriage, whichever came first. It is likely Alice and her two sisters were brought up by their stepmother, who married James Skinner of Reigate, Surrey at some point after the death of his first wife in 1549. He was childless. In his will of July 30, 1558, he named his wife sole executrix. His principal heir was his great nephew, John Skinner (c.1535-1584) who, if he was not already wed to her, would soon marry Alice Poyntz. With the death of her father-in-law in 1572, her husband inherited the considerable property in Surrey and was also charged with administering the annuity left to his sister Dorothy, "a woman not most quickest in wit." It is possible she lived with them, but she is not mentioned in the will John Skinner wrote on May 8, 1584 (proved June 27, 1584). In it, he stated that he had no children and was "not likely to have (God doeth all things for the best)" and left numerous bequests to his wife. She was named sole executrix. On August 12, 1606, a grant of administration was made to Richard Elliot, a great nephew of John Skinner, because Alice, who by that time was married to a man named Palmer, had not carried out her duties as executrix. Several online sources give this as her date of death, but that is unlikely. She could have died some time earlier or still be living. There is no way to tell. As for her second husband, he is sometimes identified as Thomas Palmer or Sir Thomas Palmer, but without any further identification. Thomas Palmer of Angmering, Sussex and Blackwall, Middlesex (1542-c.1616) did have a second wife named Alice. They had no children.
ANNE POYNTZ (c.1528-November 19, 1593)
Anne Poyntz was the daughter of Sir Nicholas Poyntz of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire (1510-1557) and Joan Berkeley (d.1563). In about 1555, she married Sir Thomas Heneage of Copt Hall, Essex (1533-October 17, 1595) and was the mother of Elizabeth Heneage (July 9, 1556-1633/4). She died at Modsey, Surrey. Portraits: one extant in 1890; effigy on her husband’s tomb in the chapel of the Virgin behind the choir in St. Paul’s Cathedral.
see AUDREY CUTTS
see ELIZABETH HUDDESFIELD
see JANE VERDON
see JOAN VAUX
see LETTICE FITZGERALD
see MARGARET SAUNDERS; MARGARET WOODVILLE
MARGARET POYNTZ (c.1505-1559)
Margaret Poyntz was the daughter of Sir Anthony Poyntz of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire (c.1480-1535) and Elizabeth Huddesfield (c.1479-1527). There were two maids of honor named Margaret Poyntz at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520 and undoubtedly this Margaret was one of them. She married Sir John Newton or Cradock of East Harptree, Somerset and Hanham, Gloucestershire (c.1505-1568) and had by him twenty-one children: Jane or Joanna (c.1528-1594/5), Frances (c.1529-1592), Henry (1535-May 2, 1599), John, Theodora (d.1569), Francis (d.1572), Bridget, Grace, Elinor (d.1588), Theophila (d.1577+), Theodosia (d.1591+), Catherine, Thomas, Sampson, Anthony, Mary, Penelope, Richard, Isabel, Agnes, and Nazaret (c.1541-1583).
MARY POYNTZ (d.1591)
Mary Poyntz was the daughter of Sir Nicholas Poyntz of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire (c.1538-1585) and his first wife, Anne Verney. Her first husband was Francis Codrington of Frampton-on-Severn, Gloucestershire (1554-October 28, 1581), by whom she had a daughter, Margaret. She then married John Sydenham of Nympsfield, Gloucestershire (1528-January 1, 1590), not to be confused with his older brother, who had the same name. They had two daughters, Anne (c.1582-1608+) and Ursula. Sydenham made his will on November 21, 1590 and it was proved January 5, 1590/1. He left Mary the lease of Socke, in respect of her jointure, and £200 each to their daughters. Mary was named executrix. She made her own will on February 4, 1590/1 and it was proved on November 27, 1591. To her daughter, Margaret Codrington, she left bedding at the house at Frampton-on-Severn. To her daughter, Anne Sydenham, she left bedding at Nympsfield and the £200 left by Anne's father, to be paid to her by Sir Thomas Throckmorton, and £500 besides. She left £200 to her daughter, Ursula Sydenham, to be paid to her by Sir Thomas Porter and Giles Dimerye. She also left £200 to the child "wherewithal I am now great," to be paid by her brother, Sir John Poyntz, who owed Mary £500. She was buried October 7, 1591. It is unclear whether or not her third child by Sydenham survived.
SUSANNA POYNTZ (d.1613)
Susanna Poyntz was the daughter of Thomas Poyntz of North Ockenden, Essex (d. May 5, 1562) and Anne Calva. She married Sir Richard Saltonstall of London and South Ockenden, Essex and a native of Yorkshire (d. March 17, 1601) and was the mother of seven sons and nine daughters, including Richard, Samuel, Peter, Elizabeth, Judith, and Martha. Her husband, a skinner and Lord Mayor of London in 1597-8, was governor of the Merchant Adventurers by 1585. By 1564, he and his wife and children were living in the Netherlands. The family later returned to England, where they lived in Mincing Lane from 1573-99. In 1602, her husband's will was challenged by his illegitimate daughter, Abigail Baker. Portrait: effigy on Saltonstall tomb in St. Nicholas's Church, South Ockenden, Essex.
see FRANCES HOWARD
MARGARET PRATT (c.1554-1602)
Margaret Pratt was the daughter of Charles Pratt of London, a leatherseller. She made four very profitable marriages, the first to John Middleton of London, a merchant tailor, by whom she had three sons and three daughters. She married secondly Edmund Chapman, squire joiner to the queen and yeoman of the royal armories at Greenwich. They had a son. Her third husband, married on September 15, 1588 in St. Dionis Backchurch, was sir Edward Osborne (c.1530-February 4, 1592), who had been Lord Mayor of London in 1583. They had no children. She was executor of their wills by her first three husbands and all three left her considerable property. From Osborne, she inherited a life interest in a house in Philpot Lane and other London and Essex properties, plus an annuity of £93, resulting in an income of about £200/year. She later negotiated with her five stepchildren to keep the Philpot Lane property for 1900 years. On April 10, 1592 she married, as his third of four wives, Robert Clarke of Pleshy, Essex (1545-January 1, 1607), a baron of the exchequer, by whom she had two daughters. She was buried in St. Dionis, Backchurch on May 20, 1602.
JOAN PRENTIS (x.1589)
Joan Prentis or Prentice lived in the almshouse in Heddington Sibble (now Sible Hedingham), Essex, some fifteen miles from Chelmsford. On July 5, 1589, she and a number of others were brought to trial at the summer assizes on charges of witchcraft. She confessed that the Devil had appeared to her as a dun-colored ferret with fiery eyes named Bidd and had asked for her soul. Saying that her soul belonged to Jesus, she offered it blood from her finger instead. Within two hours of sentencing, Joan Prentis, together with Joan Cony or Cunny and Joan Upney, were hanged. Portrait: woodcut from pamphlet about the trial; Joan Prentis is on the right.
AGNES PREST (x. August 15, 1557) (maiden name
The 1583 edition of the Book of Martyrs gives the story of Agnes Prest, but the details are, as is usual with Foxe’s anecdotes, elaborated upon to make a point. She was an uneducated village woman and was burned as a heretic just outside the walls of Exeter, but her birthplace seems to have been in Cornwall and she may have been considerably younger than Foxe believed. She worked as a servant in Exeter and there embraced the new religion. Then she returned to Cornwall to marry a farmer named Prest and bear him several children, but since he was an ardent Catholic, she eventually left her family and supported herself by spinning. The story goes that she missed her children so much that she returned to her husband and that he promptly turned her in to the authorities as a heretic. She was imprisoned in Launceston for three months and then taken to Exeter for trial. She refused to recant and was executed. Foxe’s story has it that she felt compelled to speak out against the mass to anyone who would listen and that she was arrested and tried as an Anabaptist. Another tale connected to her is that on the night before she was burned at Southernhay, she was visited by Catherine Raleigh, who prayed with her. This may or may not be true, but the fact that the same source then says that Agnes’s execution took place only a few days before Queen Mary Tudor’s death (in actual fact Agnes died more than a year before the queen) makes many of the other details suspect. A detailed but not necessarily accurate account of Agnes Prest and her activities can be found in A. L. Rowse’s Tudor Cornwall.
ALICE PRESTMARY (d. May 7, 1567) (maiden name unknown)
Alice Prestmary was the wife of John Prestmary of Great Dunmow, Essex (1507-January 30, 1567). He hanged himself from a walnut tree in his garden. The inquest was held two days later, on February 1st. That same day, according to later court documents, Alice bewitched Edward Parker, the young son of a neighbor, Robert Parker, "putting him in peril of his life, so that his life is despaired of." She was tried at the next Assizes, held that year in Brentwood on March 13th. She pled not guilty but was convicted and sentenced to a year in prison and four appearances in the pillory. She died in Colchester Castle, the county gaol, during that year. The report on the inquisition taken on May 7 stated that "she languished for a month of an illness called 'a fever' from 1 to 6 May and then died." This was attributed to a "Visitation of God." For a fuller account of Alice and her husband, see http://www.essexvoicespast.com.
ANNE PRESTON (c.1510-February 1587)
Anne Preston was the daughter of Henry Preston of Preston, Lancashire, although some genealogies list him as "of Westmorland." In the early 1530s she married William Paget (1505-June 9, 1563). They may have been introduced by Dr. Thomas Wendy because they met at his home in Cambridgeshire. In his will in 1566, Wendy left property at Coton and Whitwell to Lady Paget. The Pagets leased a house in Aldersgate in 1534. Anne was reported to have died in 1545, but she recovered from her illness. Her husband was created baron Paget of Beaudesert on December 3, 1549. Under Mary Tudor, Lady Paget was at court. Although she did not have much influence herself, she was acquainted with those who did. Jane Guildford, duchess of Northumberland, wrote to Anne at some point between Northumberland's imprisonment in the Tower on July 25, 1553 and his execution on August 22, 1553, asking her to approach Gertrude, marchioness of Exeter and the queen's good friend "Mestres Clarencyous" (Susan White) on Northumberland's behalf. Anne was chosen to escort the queen in the coronation procession on September 29, 1553. Although the effort to save Northumberland's life was not successful, Lady Northumberland's will, made in late 1554 or early 1555, remembered Anne Paget and left her a "high backed gowne of wrought velvet." In March 1555, the Pagets were said to have nine children living. They were Ethelreda or Audrey (c.1535-1587), Henry (c.1537-December 28, 1571), Joan, Anne (c.1540-c.1590-4), Eleanor, Thomas (c.1544-1590), Dorothy, Charles (d.1612), and Grisel (d. July 21, 1600). Two sons in succession succeeded to their father's title. Thomas, 3rd baron, went into exile in Paris following the revelation of the Throckmorton conspiracy in 1583/4. He wrote to his mother after arriving there. She had been expecting him at her house in Staffordshire but, since she was known to shelter Catholic priests, would have been in sympathy with his decision to follow his conscience and leave England. This letter was sent by way of a London bookbinder named Williams, at the sign of the Horn on Fleet Street, and was carried into Staffordshire, but Lady Paget may not have received it. It was likely intercepted by agents of Sir Francis Walsingham, since it is still extant among his papers.
HELEN or ELLEN PRESTON (d.c.1571)
Helen Preston was the daughter of Sir Thomas Preston of Levens and Preston Patrick, Westmorland (d.1523) and Anne Thornborough or Thornbury. She married first Sir James Leyburne of Cunswick, Westmorland (d. August 20, 1548) as his second wife. From him she inherited an eighteen year lease on the manors of Ashton, Carnforth, and Scotforth, Lancashire. Her daughters were left 200 marks apiece. Her second husband, married c.1549, was Thomas Stanley, 2nd baron Mounteagle (May 25, 1507-August 25, 1560). She had three daughters by her first husband, including Elizabeth (1536-September 4, 1567) and Anne, and two by her second husband, Margaret and another Anne. She married the first Anne to her second husband’s son, William Stanley, 3rd baron Mounteagle. After the Council of Trent declared (in 1562) that no Catholic could be present at a heretic service and remain a good Catholic, Lady Mounteagle refused to attend services. She does not seem to have been persecuted as a recusant, at least in part because of her family connections. Her widowed daughter, Elizabeth Leyburne, Lady Dacre, married as her second husband, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk. The wedding took place in Lady Mounteagle’s London house on January 29, 1567. After Elizabeth's death in childbirth some nine months later, Lady Mounteagle took charge of her grandchildren and provided a Catholic priest to instruct them. Her estate was settled on November 14, 1571.
see ALICE GALE
see JOAN COLTE
see MARY DIXWELL
MAGDALEN PRIDEAUX (d. 1619)
Magdalen Prideaux was the daughter of Thomas Prideaux of Devonshire and Helen Clement and the granddaughter of Sir Thomas More's pupil, Margaret Gigs. Her mother taught her Latin and she was later sent, as a student boarder, to St. Ursula's in Louvain, where her aunt, Margaret Clement, was prioress. Her father was a printer in the Low Countries. In 1574, he sent his wife and daughter to his brother Richard for a visit but remained in exile himself. The family was in Madrid, Spain when Magdalen met and married William Copley (1565-1643) in 1589. They had three children, Helen (1592-1666), Mary (1593-1669), and Thomas (1595-1652). Both daughters became nuns at St. Ursula's.
see PHILIPPA YORKE
ANNE PROUSE or PROWSE
see ANNE VAUGHAN
ELEANOR PROUT or PROUD
see ELEANOR ROOS
see MARTHA DORSETT
see JANE CHOWNE
see ANNE WISEMAN
see MARGARET NEVILLE
see MAUD HANMER
see BLANDINA GODWYN
Alice Purpett, possibly the sister of Richard Purpett of London, married Henry Tooley (d.1551), a wealthy Ipswich merchant. He owned a large house and trading hall on St. Mary's Quay, trading in cloth and later in grain and wine. They had three children who died young. Alice ran the business when her husband was away and after his death traded as a freewoman of Ipswich. She supervised the establishment of almshouses in Tooley's Court, provided for in her husband's will. Under Queen Mary, she shifted her allegiance to the parish of St. Clement's and in Catholic records is listed as "departed to Dersham" to avoid persecution. Portrait: brass in St. Mary the Quay church.
Anne Pury was the daughter of John Pury of Chamberhouse Manor at Crookham, Berkshire (1408-1474) and Isabel Wawne. She married Sir William Danvers of Calthorpe, Oxfordshire (d.1505), a judge. They had eight children, including Alice, William, John, Anne, and Isabel. After his death, she erected a chapel in the church at Thatcham, Berkshire. She and her husband have a monument there but their brass effigies have been lost. Anne owned one of the first English translations of the Bible, which she eventually donated to Syon Abbey.
ANNE PUTTENHAM (d.1592+)
Anne Puttenham was the daughter of Sir George Puttenham of Sherfield on Lodon, Hampshire (c.1460-January 26, 1535) and Alice Windsor (d. before 1524). By 1531, she had married John Norton of East Tisted, Hampshire (d.c.1561). They had at least one child, his son and heir, Richard Norton of Rotherfield (d.1592). In 1565, after her husband’s death, Anne claimed that Richard and his uncle had tricked her into signing away her dower rights, the manor of Rotherfield. She apparently learned of this when she sent men to the woods at the west side of the park to lop trees to sell and they were not only prevented by Richard but brought before the King's Bench by him on charges of stealing the wood. No record of how the case turned out seems to have survived.
ANNE PUTTENHAM (d.1567+)
Anne Puttenham was the daughter of Richard Puttenham of Sherfield upon Lodon, Hampshire (1520-c.1597) and Mary Warham (d.1587+), grand-niece of Archbishop Warham. Anne's father fled to the Continent in 1560 to avoid arrest and was convicted of rape in 1561. In spite of this, he returned to England several times thereafter, including a visit in 1567 during which he conveyed ownership of Sherfield to Anne and her husband, Francis Morris of Great Coxwell, Berkshire (c.1522-1584). Morris seized the property from Anne's uncle, George Puttenham, who had been in residence there since at least 1562. In April 1571, at which time George was living in Sherfield in the house of Margaret Marriner, George's men seized a mill at Sherfield. Morris took it back by force and then evicted Margaret Marriner and pulled down her house. Margaret and George rebuilt it. Morris and his men tore it down a second time. In 1581, Francis Morris was arrested for harboring Edmund Campion, the Jesuit priest. He died in prison, but George Puttenham, who was in prison himself on other charges, did not gain control of Sherfield. Meanwhile, Anne's father had returned to England toward the end of 1578. By sometime in 1583, he was also in prison, in his case in the King's Bench for debt. In 1587 he petitioned the masters of requests to reduce the annual payment he’d made to Anne's mother for the last twenty years from £30 to £20. He called Mary a "clamorous strumpet" and claimed she had brought nothing to their marriage. He mentioned neither Anne nor her mother in his will, made on April 22, 1597, instead naming his illegitimate daughter, Katherine Puttenham, as his executor. Anne and Francis's children were Warham, Anne, Martha, Thomas, Alice, Katherine, Jane, and Mary.
see ELIZABETH COWDRAY
MARGERY or MARGARET PUTTENHAM (d.1591)
Margery or Margaret Puttenham was the daughter of Robert Puttenham of Sherfield-upon-Lodon, Hampshire (1495-1546) and Margery Elyot. Her first husband was named Dockray. She married Sir John Throckmorton of Feckenham, Worcestershire (c.1518-May 22, 1580). Their children were Francis (1554-x.July 10, 1584), Thomas (d.1595), George, Edward, Mary, and Anne. Sir John, chief justice of Chester, was accused of corruption in office and sent to the Fleet. He was fined 1000 marks. He died owing over £4000 with over £1000 owed to him. In 1576, at about the same time her husband's difficulties began, Margery was accused of hearing mass said by a seminary priest at the house of her brother-in-law, John Edwards of Chirk. In October 1583, she was trying to arrange for her son Thomas to leave England. She planned to approach the countess of Arundel for help, through the countess's physician, Dr. Fryer. Her eldest son, Francis, discouraged this plan, but only because he was working undercover to plan an invasion of England and restore Catholicism. In November he was arrested and Margery's house at Lewisham, Surrey was searched. Letters quoted in Charlotte Carmichael Stopes's Shakespeare's Warwickshire Contemporaries indicate that Margaret was in serious financial difficulties, as well as in legal trouble. Her younger son George was also imprisoned in the Tower on charges of treason. On December 5, 1583, she was questioned about her plan to send Thomas abroad but she does not seem to have been arrested. On June 1, 1584, she was permitted to visit Francis in the Tower of London, after which he confessed to his treason. After his execution, she continued to be of interest to the authorities. On September 25, 1584, her former servant, Joane Morley, alias Mathew, imprisoned in Chester Castle and charged with a felony, testified that Margery wanted her son Thomas to become a priest. Portrait: effigy on tomb at Coughton.
see AGNES DUFFORD
see JOAN RASTELL
MARGARET PYNSON (d. 1530+)
Margaret Pynson was the daughter of printer Richard Pynson (c.1449-1529) and his first wife (d. c.1500). Margaret married three times. Her first husband was William Campion the Younger (d.1519), a London grocer, by whom she had two daughters, Amy and Joan. In July 1508, he leased the former Falcon Inn for a period of forty-nine years. He left this property to Margaret when he died and she continued to live there with her next two husbands. Her second husband was Steven Ward, a waxchandler. By the time her father died at the end of 1529, Margaret was married for the third time to John Hawkins, a printer. By then she probably also had power of attorney for her father. She was his principal heir. Her daughters by her first husband were left properties in Tottenham.
text ©2008-15 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)