Kathy Lynn Emerson
to update and correct
her very out-of-date
Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984)
NOTE: this document exists only in electronic format
and is ©2008-16 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)
see ROSE O’TOOLE
see MARY FITZGERALD
see EDITH WILLIAMS
see FIONNUALA MACDONNELL
see JOAN NICHOLLS
CATHERINE OGLE (c.1566-April 18, 1629)
Catherine Ogle was the daughter and coheiress of Cuthbert, 7th baron Ogle (c.1540-November 20, 1597) and Catherine Carnaby. On June 11, 1591, she married Sir Charles Cavendish of Welbeck Abbey, Nottinghamshire (1553-April 4, 1617) as his second wife. In 1592, a critic of Cavendish wrote that Catherine was "thought to be no better" than his first wife, who had been "a papist by birth." The couple had three sons, William (December 6, 1592-December 25, 1676) and two unnamed boys, one of whom died before his father. Catherine was executrix of her husband's will and inherited for life all his personal estate less 1500 marks and 1000 marks that went to his two surviving sons. The Cavendish chapel, part of St. Mary & St. Lawrence Church in Bolsolver, Derbyshire was built in 1618 to house the tomb of Charles and Catherine Cavendish, which suggests that Catherine supervised the work. In 1628, after the death of her sister, she was created Baroness Ogle. The title had been in abeyance since her father's death. The inquisition post mortem taken after Catherine died at Bothall ("worth £10 clear") states she was in possession of 200 acres of land, ten acres of meadow, and twenty acres of pasture in Gesmond, Northumberland and of land in Castle Leyes. Her son William inherited as Baron Ogle of Bothall. Catherine may have been the subject of the Scottish air, "Katherine Ogle" (and variant spellings) if it was composed by Irish harper Rory dall O’Cahan, who was at the court of James VI and I in Scotland c.1603-1650, but the tune cannot be conclusively dated earlier than 1686. Portrait: effigy in Cavendish Chapel, Bolsover.
ELIZABETH OGLETHORPE (d.1609)
Elizabeth Oglethorpe was the daughter of John Oglethorpe of Newington, Oxfordshire (d.1579) and Alice Goodwyn. Her first husband was Robert Rokes of Fawley, Buckinghamshire (d.1580). They had one child, Elizabeth Rokes, who became the queen's ward. According to the History of Parliament entry for her stepfather, John Alford of Holt Castle, Denbighshire (d.1600), there was an attempt in 1586 to marry young Elizabeth to one of his relatives, but it came to nothing. By Alford, Elizabeth Oglethorpe Rokes had two sons, John (d. yng) and Henry (d.1645). By February 1601, she had married a third time, as his second wife, to Richard Mompesson of Salisbury, Wiltshire (d.1627). He was knighted in 1603. They had no children.
see MARY BEATON
see ANNE WHITTLE
see ELIZABETH BLACKBURN
GRACE O’MALLEY (1530-c.1603)
Grace or Grania O’Malley, legendary female pirate, was the daughter of Owen Dubhdara O’Malley and Margaret, daughter of Conchobhar O’Malley. Grace married first Donal O’Flaherty and second Richard Burke (d.1583). Her second husband became chief of the Burkes of Mayo in 1582. Grace had two sons, Owen O’Flaherty (d.1586) and Theobald Burke (d.1629) and a daughter, Margaret. Her activities harried the English authorities in Ireland for decades. In the 1570s she kidnapped young Christopher St. Lawrence, Lord Howth’s heir. A painting at Howth Castle depicts the incident. In 1576/7, she greatly impressed the young Philip Sidney, whose father was Lord Deputy, when he visited Galway. She spent two years in prison in 1578-9 and was tried for plundering Aran Island in 1586 and was almost executed. In 1593, Sir Richard Bingham, who had tried her in 1586, called her “a notable traitress and nurse to all rebellions in the province for forty years,” but Sir John Perrot secured a pardon for her from Queen Elizabeth. In 1595, she petitioned Lord Burghley for the return of her jointure lands. Although it was long said that she did not speak English and never visited England, recent biographers assert that she did go to the court of Elizabeth I in 1593 and again in 1595. By tradition, she is said to have died in great poverty and been buried on Clare Island. Biographies: Anne Chambers, Granuale: The Life and Times of Grace O’Malley; sections of Joan Druett’s She Captains; Barbara Sjoholm’s The Pirate Queen: In Search of Grace O’Malley and Other Legendary Women of the Sea, and Jo Stanley, ed., Bold in her Breeches; Oxford DNB entry under "O'Malley, Grainne [Grace]."
see ELIZABETH ROLLESTON
see CORDELL ANNESLEY
see MARY AUCHER
Jane Ormond was the daughter of John Ormond of Alfreton, Derbyshire (d. October 5, 1503), an illegitimate son of the 6th earl of Ormond, and Joan Chaworth (d. August 29, 1507). Her first husband was Sir Thomas Dynham or Dinham of Ashridge, Hertfordshire and Eyethorpe, Buckinghamshire (d.1519), by whom she John, George, Oliver, Edward, Roger, Thomas, Charles, Eleanor, Catherine, Anne, Mary, and Elizabeth. In his will, written September 18, 1519 and proved February 13, 1519/20, he left her 1000 marks and all his movables. She then married Sir Edward Greville of Milcote, Warwickshire and Drayton, Oxfordshire (d. June 22, 1528). Her third husband, married c.1529, was Sir William Fitzwilliam of Milton and Gains Park, Essex (1460-August 9, 1534), as his third wife. In his will of May 28, 1534, proved September 5, 1534, he leaves "my right dear and well beloved wife, Dame Jane Fitzwilliam, for term of her life, the manors Henninalles, Maydelles, Marshalles, Arnewayes, in the county of Essex . . . a cross of diamonds which I gave to her" and other bequests, including his messuage in the parish of St. Thomas the Apostle in London, where they were then living. Jane made her will on January 17, 1540/1 and it was proved October 25, 1542. She asked to be buried in the church of St. Thomas the Apostle. In addition to leaving bequests to her surviving children and other relatives, her will names her maid, Agnes Jenys, and her chaplain, John Fox.
ELIZABETH ORTELIUS (d.1594)
Elizabeth Ortelius was the daughter of Leonard Ortelius (c.1495-1535), a wealthy merchant of Antwerp, and the sister of cartographer Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598). She married Jacob Cole (d.1591), a cloth merchant specializing in silk production and the silk trade. They were part of the Dutch-Walloon refugee community in London, living on Lime Street. Their son, James Cole, also known as Jacob Cool and Jacobus Colius Ortelianus (1563-1628) became a famous naturalist.
ANNE ORWELL (1583-1608+)
Anne Orwell was the daughter of Edward Orwell of London and Lancaster (d. January 5, 1591) and his wife Mary (d.1591+). Although one online genealogy gives her date and place of birth as December 5, 1572 in Thaxted, Essex, she is almost certainly the Anne, daughter of Edward, who was christened in Christ Church, Greyfriars, Newgate, London on May 11, 1583. Her father, a gentleman who was registrar of the court of arches, left a will indicating that he owned land in Barking, Essex and Brenchley, Kent, as well as property in London. On April 16, 1604, at Mitcham, Surrey, Anne married John Overall (1559-May 12, 1619). He was at that time dean of St. Paul's but later became Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (1614) and Bishop of Norwich (1618). They had no children, which was just as well. According to Aubrey's Brief Lives, Anne had "the loveliest eyes that were ever seen" but was "wondrous wanton. When she came to Court, or to the Play-house, the Gallants would . . . flock about her." She committed adultery with Richard Sackville, 3rd earl of Dorset (d. March 27, 1624), a notorious womanizer, and then, in 1608, began an affair with Sir John Selby of Twizel, Northumberland (c.1574-1636). She ran off with him in July of that year, but her husband sent men to fetch her back and apparently forgave her, although by then there were already scurrilous poems making the rounds. Some verses praised her beauty: "Her face had a filbert hue/and bosoms like a swan./She had a back of bended ewe [yew?]/and waisted by a span." Others made fun of the cuckolded husband: "The Dean of St. Paul's did search for his wife/And where do you think he found her?/Even upon Sir John Selby's bed/As flat as any flounder." Selby went abroad soon after Anne was taken back to her husband.
Jane Orwell was the daughter of Sir Lewis Orwell of Ashwell, Hertfordshire and Elizabeth Ludlow. She was the longtime mistress of Edward Grey, 3rd baron Powis or Powys (1503-July 12, 1551) and bore him six or seven children, the first three of whom are mentioned in the will he made on July 11, 1544. They were Edward (c.1543-1624), Anne, Jane, Walter, Andrew, Cecily, and (possibly) Thomas. Jane was expecting her fourth child at the time the will was made and Powis lived for another seven years. Powis was married at the time he made his will, but had separated from his wife (see ANNE BRANDON), who had a lover of her own. The will leaves his holdings to any legitimate heirs, but "in default of issue of my body lawfully begotten" leaves everything to Edward, his son by Jane. Provision is made for succeeding sons to inherit if Edward dies childless and for his daughters by Jane to inherit should the male line fail. To Jane herself, he left the castle and manor of Charlton and the manor of Pontysbury for life. At an undetermined date, possibly shortly before Powis died, Jane married John Herbert of London and Montgomery Castle (c.1515-1596+). He had three sons and a daughter, but they may have been the children of his first wife, Elizabeth Derwas. Through his marriage to Jane, Herbert acquired Buildwas, Salop, which was part of the estate that passed to young Edward Grey. On his behalf, Herbert contested claims made by Thomas Vernon to the barony of Powis. In 1568, Herbert was styled as "of Red [Powis] Castle" Jane, meanwhile, took to calling herself Lady Powys. Perhaps she had all along. A record of 1580 refers to "Jane called Jane Herbert, widow; otherwise Jane Kemp, otherwise Jane Orwell, called Lady Powys." I am not sure where the Kemp comes from, nor is the "widow" clear, since Herbert was still living. He was thought to have died "not long after 1583" but in fact was still alive on April 8, 1596 when he and Jane both signed a letter to Edward Kynaston. She signed herself "Jane Powys."
see ANNE BLYTH; ANNE HEWETT
KATHERINE OSBORNE (d. February 11, 1615)
Katherine Osborne was one of the twenty-two children of Peter Osborne of Tyld Hall, Lachingdon and South Fambridge, Essex and Chicksands, Bedordshire (1521-June 7, 1592) and Anne Blyth (d.1615). Online genealogies have her born in Lachingdon and dates for her birth vary from 1575 to 1578. By the mid1590s (one genealogy says before March 2, 1594), she had married Sir Thomas Cheke of Pirgo, Essex (January 7, 1570-1659), her second cousin. They had one daughter, who died young. Katherine was one of two Lady Chekes at court under King James (see MARY HILL). She died after a botched bleeding by the queen's physician.
see LUCY HYDE
see MARGARET PRATT
see THOMASINE HEMINGES
see ELIZABETH CABOT
O’TOOLE (d. 1597+)
Rose O’Toole was the daughter of Turlough O’Toole, who was assassinated in the 1540s. She married Feagh MacHugh O’Byrne (c.1544-1597) as his second wife. O’Byrne, known as the “firebrand of the mountains” was a rebel leader. In 1580, Rose was captured and questioned about her husband’s activities. she blamed the earl of Kildare for involving O’Byrne in treason. Eventually, a truce was reached. The O’Byrnes were noted for their hospitality at their home at Ballincor, but even during peaceful times they were plotting against the English. In January 1591, they contrived the escape of Red Hugh O’Donnell from Dublin Castle and arranged for him to be sheltered by Rose’s brother, Phelim O’Toole, at Castlekevin. In 1594, the truce expired and the Nine Years War (1594-1603), also known as the Rising of the Northern Chiefs, the last great Irish rebellion against the government of Queen Elizabeth, began. In January of 1595, Ballincor was attacked. O’Byrne was almost taken prisoner and Rose was wounded in the breast. The family retreated to Dromceat. O’Byrne’s death did not keep Rose from working for the rebel cause. She acted as a go-between and Sir Thomas Lee believed that she was the mistress of Thomas Butler, 10th earl of Ormond (1532-November 22, 1614). She did take messages from him to the rebel earl of Tyrone. For this crime, she was arrested and sentenced to be burnt as a traitor but was pardoned by Queen Elizabeth in return for her promise to work against her stepson, Turlough O’Byrne. Rose did not keep her word and a second pardon became necessary at a later date.
MARGERY OTWELL (d. 1536+) (maiden name unknown)
Margery Otwell was part of the household of Catherine of Aragon, joining it well before April 23, 1521, when Sir John Peche of Lullingstone (c.1473-1521) made a will leaving her a bequest of £10 and identifying her as "one of the queen's chamberers." The will was proved in October 1522. Margery remained with the queen until December 1533. At that time, for refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy, she was dismissed. An Elizabeth Otwell left at the same time. When she was dying, Catherine asked that Margery be given a bequest of £40 and also remembered Margery's daughter, Isabel. As Isabel is the Spanish version of Elizabeth, it is possible this was the Elizabeth Otwell in Catherine’s service until 1533. Nothing further is known about either of them.
see ELIZABETH SEYMOUR
BRIDGET OVER (d.1574+)
Bridget Over was the daughter of Henry Over (alias Waver) of Coventry, Warwickshire (d. June 26, 1567) and his wife Catherine. Over was mayor of Coventry in 1554/5 and a grocer or mercer. In his will of June 24, 1567, proved November 24, 1567, he named a long list of relatives, including the children of his daughters. I have not yet seen this will. Bridget married first John Nethermill of Coventry (d. October 31, 1559) by a marriage settlement dated November 18, 1550. He was a draper and mayor of Coventry in 1557/8. They had one son, also named John. His will left Bridget life interest in a house at Exhall, Warwickshire and named her one of his executors. Before 1561, Bridget took as her second husband Stephen Hales of Gladbury, Worcestershire, Tottenham, Middlesex, and Coventry (d.1574), a merchant taylor. He had four sons (Charles, Timothy, Robert, and Stephen) and one or two daughters, possibly all by his first wife. In his will of February 17, 1574, he appointed Bridget one of his executors.
see ANNE ORWELL
see ALICE WILKES
see ANNE DEVEREUX; ANNE RAWLEY
ELIZABETH OWEN (d.1551+)
Elizabeth Owen was the daughter of Sir David Owen (1459-1535) and Anne Devereux (d.1554+) and a legatee in the 1529 will of her father. Before April 27, 1534, she married Sir Thomas Borough (d.1542), son of Thomas, 3rd baron Borough (Burgh) of Gainsborough (1483-February 28,1549/50). In 1537, when Elizabeth gave birth to her first child (Margaret), her father-in-law became convinced that she was guilty of adultery and disowned her. Destitute, living in her mother's house, Elizabeth petitioned Thomas Cromwell for an income. In 1543, matters detriorated further when her father-in-law secured an act of Parliament that declared all three of the children born to Elizabeth during his son’s lifetime to be illegitimate. The summary of this act in Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII vol 18, pt. 1 (1543) p. 46 #66 (London: HMSO, 1901) reads: "That whereas Elizabeth Burgh, late wife of Thomas lord Burgh (sic) lived in adultery during her husband's lifetime, and had children Margaret, Humfrey and Arthur by persons other than her husband, as she has partly confessed, these children are to be taken as bastards." Katherine Parr, who was also, briefly, one of Lord Burgh's daughter-in-laws, paid Elizabeth a pension from her own chamber accounts during her tenure as queen (1543-1547). Ironically, in his will, Lord Borough left Elizabeth's daughter, Margaret, a legacy of 700 marks, an indication that he might have changed his mind. The 3rd baron Burgh was, according to Katherine Parr's biographer, Susan James, a tyrant who ruled his family with an iron hand. There was also a strain of madness in the Borough family, a fact from which one may infer whatever they choose about the charges against Elizabeth Owen.
OWEN (d. before
Jane Owen, according to John Owen the Latin epigrammist (in a verse published in 1607), was his relative, the eldest of six daughters, and a resident of Oxford. He praised her abilities as a Latin poet. Her An Antidote Against Purgatory was published posthumously in 1634 and she was clearly a Roman Catholic, but other information about her remains speculative. It has been suggested that she was the daughter of George Owen of Godstow, Oxfordshire (c.1499-October 18, 1558), who was a royal physician to both Henry VIII and Queen Mary, but if she was related at all, she was more likely his granddaughter.
see MARY LONG
see ALICE FOGGE
ELIZABETH OXENBRIDGE (c.1519-April 1578)
Elizabeth Oxenbridge was the daughter of Goddard Oxenbridge (1465-February 10, 1531) of Brede and his second wife, Anne Fiennes (1490-May 24, 1531). She was at court in the household of Queen Jane Seymour in 1537 and after the queen's death resided with Mary Arundell, countess of Sussex. She played an active role in attempting to place one of her sisters, Mary Oxenbridge, in the Calais household of Honor Grenville, viscountess Lisle. Mary thwarted the plan by eloping with a gentleman from Kent. Elizabeth was married to Sir Robert Tyrwhitt (c.1504-1572) of Leighton Bromswold, Huntingdonshire by August 4, 1539, when she and several other gentlewomen wrote a letter to King Henry from Portsmouth, where they had gone to view the royal fleet. She signed it "Elizabeth Tyrwhyt." When Catherine Howard became queen, Elizabeth was a gentlewoman of the privy chamber and during Anne Parr Herbert’s absence from court to have a child, temporarily took over her duties as keeper of the queen’s jewels. She was also a lady of the privy chamber to Kathryn Parr and shared the queen’s views on religion. It is probably at this time that her book of prayers was written. Her husband was Kathryn's master of horse. Both she and her husband remained with the queen dowager after Henry VIII’s death and Elizabeth, in testimony before the Privy Council, gave an eyewitness account of the queen dowager’s death on September 5, 1548. Elizabeth’s dislike of Kathryn Parr’s new husband, Lord Admiral Thomas Seymour, comes through clearly in this report. A short time later, Sir Robert and Lady Tyrwhitt were put in charge of Princess Elizabeth at Hatfield, following the removal of the princess’s longtime governess, Kat Astley, on suspicion of plotting to marry her young charge to the widowed Lord Admiral. Upon Lady Tyrwhitt's arrival, the princess locked herself in her room and declared that she did not need a governess. Sir Robert was of the opinion that she needed two and Lady Tyrwhitt stayed on even after Kat Astley’s return to the household. When the princess was in the Tower, Lady Tyrwhitt sent her a copy of the book of prayers later printed as Lady Elizabeth Tyrwhitt’s Morning and Evening Prayers (1574). In 1577, the Puritan printer John Field dedicated his translation of Jean de L'Espine's Excellent treatise of Christian righteousness to Lady Tyrwhitt. Although Sir Robert continued as master of horse under Mary Tudor, Elizabeth seems to have stayed at home. She bore at least three children, two who died young and a daughter, Katherine (1541-1567). Sir Robert's will in 1572 left the bulk of his estate to his "deare and wellbeloved wife." Some genealogies give her a second husband, Roger Fynes. Elizabeth died in her home in St. John's Lane, Clerkenwell. Biography: Susan M. Felch, ed., Elizabeth Tyrwhit's Morning and Evening Prayers (2008); Oxford DNB entry under "Tyrwhit [née Oxenbridge], Elizabeth." Portrait: marble effigy in St. Mary's parish church, Leighton Bromswold.
ELIZABETH OXENBRIDGE (c.1529-January 1590)
Elizabeth Oxenbridge was the daughter of Thomas Oxenbridge (1502-March 28,1540), half brother of Elizabeth Oxenbridge (above), and Elizabeth Puttenham (1507-1529). Around 1540, she also married a man named Robert Tyrwhitt, this one the nephew of the one married to Elizabeth's aunt. Sir Robert Tyrwhitt of Kettleby (1526-November 16, 1581) was also at court. Many accounts confuse these two sets of Robert and Elizabeth Tyrwhitts, or try to combine them into one couple instead of two. The Tyrwhitts of Kettleby, however, have the distinction of having produced twenty-two children, all of whom are pictured on their tomb in Bigby, Lincolnshire. Among them were: William (d.1591), Edward (1551-1577), Margaret (b.1552), Ursula (1553-1618), Marmaduke (d.1589), Goddard (b.1556), John (b.1557), Anne, George (b.c.1562), Mary, Robert (b.1565), Humphrey (1566-1579), Elizabeth, Frances (1572-1601+), and Roger (c.1573-1610). Elizabeth was buried on January 25, 1589/90. Portraits: A set of portraits of "Elizabeth Oxenham(sic), Lady Tyrwit" and her husband by Cornelius Ketel, painted in 1573, are referred to in Roy Strong's The English Icon but not reproduced there. Their location was unknown at the time of that book's publication in 1969; effigy.
MALYN OXENBRIDGE (1475-October 3, 1544)
Malyn Oxenbridge was the daughter of Sir Robert Oxenbridge of Ford Place in Brede, Sussex and Anne Lyvelode. She married Sir Richard Carew of Beddington (c.1470-May 23, 1520). Their children were Margaret (b.c.1510), Elizabeth (d. February 4, 1532), Ann, Sir Nicholas (x. March 3, 1539), and Mary. Malyn's inheritance from her husband included lands he had recently purchased in the county of Guisnes. After her son's execution for treason, Lady Carew continued to live in Beddington, possibly in the building later called the Old Post Office. Later in 1539, her grandson, Charles Carew (x.1540), rector of Beddington and the illegitimate son of Sir Nicholas, conspired to rob Malyn of her money, plate, and jewelry. A letter exists from Malyn to Lord Cromwell, thanking him for his kindness and asking for mercy for the offenders. In it she writes "if I had my sight I would have waited on you to thank you," from which I conclude she was blind. Some records give her name as Maude. Some records also say she had another husband before Richard Carew. Two names are suggested but both are unlikely. William Cheyney was actually married to Malyn's niece, Malyn Fincham. Arthur Darcy of Huntingdon will also be found in some records, but a marriage to him is based on Malyn's reference to a "son" by that name. In fact, she is referring to her granddaughter's husband. She was buried with her husband at St. Mary's, Beddington, Surrey.
see ANNE LAUNCELYN
text ©2008-16 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)