Kathy Lynn Emerson
to update and correct
her very out-of-date
Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984)
NOTE: this document exists only in electronic format
and is ©2008-14 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)
(d.1597/8) (maiden name unknown)
Isabelle Mabbe was the wife of goldsmith John Mabbe (c.1515-1582). Their children were John, Robert, Richard, Stephen, and Edward (d. before 1597). When her husband died, Isabel inherited considerable property, including a life interest in the Tabard Inn in Southwark. The inn was in the hands of Robert Mabbe by 1584, but it was not until 1590 that Isabelle sold him the deed for £150. In 1593, she was probably the Widow Mabbe living in Bull Head Alley near the Bear Garden. At her death, Isabelle owned the six houses adjoining the inn but in her will, dated May 30, 1597 and proved December 15, 1598, she described herself as being of Totteridge, Herefordshire. Along with numerous bequests to family members, she left twenty shillings to her maid, Joan. The entire will can be found at Oxford-Shakespeare.com.
see ELEANOR FITZGERALD
ELLEN MACCARTHY (c.1574-1607+)
Ellen MacCarthy was the daughter and heir of Donal MacCarthy, earl of Clancare (d. before February 12,1597) and Honora Fitzgerald (d. August 1598+). According to "Ellen MacCarthy–The Survivor," by John Dorney (the entire article can be found at http://www.theirishstory.com/2011/05/14/ellen-maccarthy-%2%80%93-the-survivor/), she would have been known in Ireland as Eilean Ni Carthaigh. At fourteen, her father proposed to marry her to Nicholas Browne, son of Valentine Browne, a low-born Englishman. The English Lord President of Munster, Warham St. Leger, approved of this match, but Ellen's mother did not. Instead, Lady Clancare arranged for Ellen to secretly marry her kinsman, Finian (known as Florence) MacCarthy (c.1560-1640). Florence was summoned to Limerick on July 1, 1588 to explain his actions and Ellen and her mother were also taken into custody. She escaped in February 1589 and hid in Carberry but her husband was sent to England and confined in the Tower of London in June 1589. In January 1589/90, he was released but obliged to live within three miles of London. Ellen joined him there a short time later and gave birth to their eldest son (Teig) there in 1592. She and her son were sent home to Carberry and Florence followed in November 1593. Although they had three more sons (Donal, Cormac, and Finian), by 1594 Nicholas Browne was reporting that they were "at variance" and separated over "whether his men or hers should inhabit" certain lands. On her father's death, his lands and title should by tradition have passed to her husband but, in 1599, Florence was complaining that his wife thought he was trying to take away her inheritance. In the ongoing conflict between England and Ireland, Ellen passed on information about her husband to the English and was said to have refused to come to his bed until he was reconciled with Queen Elizabeth. In 1602, when Florence was again arrested and imprisoned in the Tower, Ellen was given a grant of land and money. Her sons were with her husband in England. The eldest died shortly after his arrest. In 1607, Florence wrote that he had sent away "the wicked woman that was my wife" and added that he had not seen her for almost a year before his arrest. On April 16, 1607, Ellen was granted thirteen quarters of land and an annuity of £150.
see HONORA FITZGERALD
FIONNUALA or FINOLA MACDONALD or MACDONNELL (d. c. 1611)
Fionnuala MacDonald was the daughter of James MacDonald of the Isles (d. August 1565) and Lady Agnes Campbell (c.1515-c.1590). She was raised at the Scottish court. Her father was killed in battle by Shane O’Neill but four years later her marriage and that of her mother were part of an alliance between Irish and Scottish clans. In August 1569 on Rathlin Island, Fionnuala married Hugh Dhubh (the Black) O’Donnell, chief of Tyrconnell (c.1535-November 2, 1600) as his second wife. Her mother married Shane O’Neill’s successor, Turlough Luineach O’Neill (c.1530-1595). Their dowries were armed men rather than money. One account says 400-500 Campbells and 700 MacDonalds from Kintyre while another calls them 1200 Scottish mercenary troops. “By these two women,” an English agent in Ireland wrote, “arisith all mischief against the English in the Pale.” Certainly they were both active in the effort to preserve Ulster from English rule. Fionnuala became known as “Iníon Dhubh” (Dark Girl). With O’Donnell she had seven children—Nuala (d.1611+), Hugh Roe (the Red) (1572-August 30,1602), Rury (1575-1608), Manus (d. October 24, 1600), Mairghaed (d. 1608+), Máire (d.1662) and Cathbarr (d.1608). In 1587, Sir John Perrot plotted to kidnap Hugh Dhubh, his wife, and their oldest son Hugh, but only Hugh Roe fell into English hands. He was imprisoned in Dublin Castle. This so angered Fionnuala that she vowed to restore him to all his rights as an Irish chieftain so that he might defeat the English. In 1588 she threatened to hire Spaniards to stir up trouble. That same year she arranged the assassination of Hugh Gallagher (d.1588), who stood in the way of her plans. Donal, her husband’s son by his first marriage (some sources say illegitimate son) fell in battle against Fionnuala's forces in 1592. In January 1592, Hugh Roe had finally escaped from Dublin. It took almost a year for him to recover his health but in the meantime his mother persuaded her ailing husband to relinquish leadership to the younger man. On April 24, 1592, Hugh Roe became “the O’Donnell” in the last enkinging ever held in Ireland and then united with Hugh O’Neill, who had married his half sister Siobhan (d.1591) in 1574, to rebel against the English. His mother “joined a man’s heart with a woman’s thought” and the rising she fomented lasted until James I succeeded Queen Elizabeth in 1603. King James created Fionnuala’s younger son, Rury, earl of Tyrconnell, Hugh Roe having died the previous year, but the truce did not last. In 1608, Rury and other members of the family, including his sister Nuala, fled to Louvain and then to Rome. Fionnuala retired to Kilmacrennan. Biography: slightly different versions of her life are found in three Oxford DNB entries, for her husband, her son, and her mother ("Campbell, Lady Agnes").
Cecily MacWilliam was the youngest daughter Henry MacWilliams or MacWilliam of Stambourne Hall, Essex (1532-December 1586) and Mary Hill (1532-November 30, 1616). The unpublished PhD dissertation All the Queen's Women: The Changing Place and Perception of Aristocratic Women in Elizabethan England 1558-1620 (1987) by Joan Barbara Greenbaum Goldsmith lists Elizabeth MacWilliam, daughter of Mary Hill, as being in attendance at court from 1587, but the lists of MacWilliams children I’ve seen do not include an Elizabeth. Cecily had four older sisters, but their names were Margaret, Susan, Ambrosia, and Cassandra. Cecily, however, was a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth before her marriage to Sir Thomas Ridgway of Tor Abbey, Devonshire (1564-January 24, 1631/2), later created earl of Londonderry. They had five children, Sir Robert (d.1639/40), Cassandra, Edward, Mary, and MacWilliam.
see MARY HILL
The parentage of Ursula Maidenhead is something of a mystery. The monument to her second husband, on which she also appears in effigy, reports that Thomas Hungerford "had to wife Ursula Maidenhead, the daughter of Lady Sands." Various genealogy sites identify "Lady Sands" as Margaret Dixon of Witherslack (d.1548+), wife of William Sandys of Hawkshead, Furness Fells, Lancashire (c.1480-c.1548), where he had a house called Esthwaite Hall. Some of these same genealogy sites say Ursula was born at Colton Hall, Staffordshire, but they are unclear as to who her father was. Some also confuse Sandys with his uncle, the first baron Sandys. As far as I can tell, the William Sandys married to Margaret Dixon was not even knighted, let alone a lord, and he was not, apparently, Ursula's father. Ursula's first husband was James Barnard of London (d.1540), by whom she had Richard (d. by 1582), Edmund, another son, and two daughters. By 1543, Ursula had married Thomas Hungerford of Chelsea (1511-1581). In 1544, Hungerford claimed, in right of his wife as Barnard's widow, "seven tenements or cottages with their appurtenances, containing by estimation one hundred acres of land, meadow and pasture . . . at a rent of fifty-four shillings and sixpence." The children of Thomas Hungerford and his wife Ursula were Edward (d.1614), Anthony, another son, and Mary. Ursula made her will in 1583. Included in it was a list of the portraits the Hungerfords had collected. Among them were likenesses of all the Tudor kings and queens, of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, of William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, and of Thomas and Ursula. Portraits: one extant in 1583; effigy on Hungerford monument in Chelsea Old Church.
de MAILLÉ (d.c.1535)
Françoise de Maillé (also called, in one source, Françoise de Maillé de la Tour Landry, dame de Châteauroux) was the daughter of Hardouin de Maillé and Antoinette de Chauvigny (d.1473). Her father was chamberlain to King Louis XI and according to Alison Weir (Mary Boleyn) she was in the service of the king's daughter, Jeanne de France, at one time. Jeanne, who was crippled from birth, was set aside and sent to a nunnery by her husband, Louis XII, in 1498, so that he could marry Anne of Brittany. In 1480, Françoise married François Beaujeu-Linières, seigneur de Linières, de Rezay, and de Thevét. After his death, she wed Jean d’Aumont, baron de Conches and d’Estrabonne (1458-February 19, 1523). They were married on February 14, 1484. Their children were Pierre (d.1548+), Claude (d.1554), Felix (d.1538?), and another Pierre. In 1513, she was appointed to replace Lady Guildford as chief lady of the household (dame d’honneur) of Mary Tudor, the new Queen of France, when most of Mary's retinue was sent home. This was a short-lived appointment, as King Louis died shortly after his marriage, but while she held the post, she was in charge of the young Mary Boleyn and several other English girls. Later Françoise was governess to the children of King Francis I.
see JOAN HURSTE
MALLERY or MALLORY
see ELIZABETH BRUYN
Katherine Mallory was the daughter of Sir William Mallory of Studely and Hutton, Yorkshire (1500-April 27, 1547) and Jane Norton (1500-1588), although some sources call her the daughter of Sir John Mallory of Studely. She married George Radcliffe of Derwentwater (1517-1579) and herself received a grant of market and lease in Keswick, Cumberland. In May 1565, copper ore said to contain silver was found in the area and Queen Elizabeth brought in foreign workmen with mining experience to mine the ore. The first twenty German miners arrived in Keswick on September 20, 1565. The Radcliffes objected to this, in part because they claimed mineral rights the queen was attempting to usurp. Lady Radcliffe in particular opposed the opening of the mines. She refused to let any wood be cut down on her lands, either for props in the mines or for fuel. In July 1566, after an English mob attacked German workers, resulting in a German death, she intervened to save the leaders of the mob from the gallows. Apparently, however, she eventually compromised, since documents reprinted in Elizabethan Keswick by W. G. Collingwood include the following records for 1569: Rent to Miladi Catharina Radclieff, paid through her Bailey Parsovel Radclieff, for the land on which the Smelthouses stand, due at Michaelmas, I/- a year, according to agreement made with (Sir) George Radclieff; three years’ rent from Michaelmas 1566, 3/-. and We bought from Miledi Catharina Badclieff all her wood called Baras (Barrow) from the parks toward Borrowdale, containing 150 oaks, 300 ashes and about 800 birches; the agreement was signed by the trustees of her children, Mr. William Mallori and Thomas Thurland, in the presence of Jhon Tarston, Richardt Duedle (Dudley), Joris Lample (G. Lamplugh) and Mr. Sackhfield; and owe Ser Joris Radclieff £33 6 8. Katherine had at least one child, a son Sir Francis (1562-December 23, 1622)
(maiden name unknown)
In around 1568, when a young man named Timothy Malt was aged thirteen and more, his mother, Isabel Malt, then living in Horn Alley in Aldersgate Street, London, told a strange story to a chronicler (some sources say Holinshed; some John Foxe). Timothy was born on Whitsuntide in the morning (June 11) in 1555, when the Queen, Mary Tudor, was also reputed to be pregnant. At that time, mother and child (there is no mention of a father) lived in Old Fish Street. Shortly after the birth, Isabel was visited by two lords, one of whom said he was Lord North. They asked her to give them her child and to thereafter swear that she had never given birth. She refused. Later at least one woman also visited her, telling her she should have been the child's rocker. The implication was that they intended to pretend that young Timothy had been born to the queen, thus providing England with a Catholic heir to the throne. Since the story was advanced as Protestant propaganda, however, it may have been a complete fabrication.
ANNE MALTE (d.1549) (maiden name unknown)
Anne Malte was the second wife of John Malte (d.1547), the king's tailor. According to an inquisition post mortem taken August 17, 1547 of the estate of John Potkyn, gentleman (in Abstracts of Inquisitions Post Mortem for the City of London for the reign of Edward VI), "___ Malte, widow, late the wife of John Malte, deceased," paid a yearly rent of 27s 4d on property in Bread Street in the parish of All Saints. It does not seem likely, however, that she lived there. Certainly during her marriage, the Malte house was in Watling Street in the parish of St. Augustine at Paul's Gate. In 1541, Malte's worth was set at 2000 marks and he was assessed £33 6s 8d in the London Subsidy Roll for Bread Street Ward. On October 16, 1548, Anne Malte purchased the manor of Hickmans in the Hamlet of Haggerston in the northeast part of the parish of Shoreditch. The property included appurtenances and about 100 acres. Anne left this property to her daughter Elizabeth (d.1558+) and her husband, Thomas Hilton, who were named executors in her will in 1549. Elizabeth is not mentioned in the excerpt of John Malte's will (written September 10, 1546; proved June 7, 1547) given in William Fletcher King's Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, Vol. 3, which suggests that she might have been Anne's daughter by an earlier marriage. Anne is not mentioned in the excerpt, either, although Malte refers to a "first" wife in connection with her daughters. Either Anne is mentioned in the part not included in the excerpt or her husband had already made provision for her.
BRIDGET MALTE (d. November 30, 1557)
Bridget Malte was the daughter of John Malte (d. 1547), the king's tailor, and his first wife. Most accounts call her his youngest daughter. She married John Scutt or Skutt (before 1498-1557), who was one of the royal tailors from 1519-1547, making clothing for all six of Henry VIII's wives and also for private clients like Honor Grenville, Lady Lisle. Scutt was master of the Merchant Taylors Company in 1536. He was also a widower with a young daughter, Margaret, when he married Bridget, who appears to have been his neighbor in 1541. John "Soutt" is listed directly after John Malte in the London Subsidy Roll for Bread Street Ward (parish of St. Augustine at Paul's Gate). Each was declared to be worth 2000 marks and assessed £33 6s 8d. They were married by 1545 when their son Anthony (1545-January 7, 1588) was born. According to "Skutt Notes" by F. J. Poynton of Kelston Rectory in Vol. 2 (1891) of Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset, edited by Charles Howard Mayo, John Malte's 1546 will (written September 1546 and proved June 7, 1547) mentions "Edward, brother of Anthony" and left Bridget the manor of Uffington, Berkshire. Anthony Scutt was bequeated the parsonage at Woolstone, Berkshire and the reversion of rights to properties left to his cousin, William Horner, should William die without issue. Bridget and John Scutt were named overseers of the will. John Scutt was granted arms on November 12, 1546. After the death of Henry VIII he retired to the manor of Stanton Drew, Somerset, where he was the tenant of Sir John St. Loe. The next part of the story comes primarily from Mary S. Lovell's Bess of Hardwick. Scutt had a reputation for mistreating his wife and when he suddenly died, there were whispers of poison. The whispers grew louder when Bridget remarried a fortnight after her husband's death, taking as her second husband Edward St. Loe (c.1520-1578), one of Sir John's sons. Before Edward married her, he had arranged for his brother, Sir William St. Loe, to purchase the wardship of Anthony Scutt. He'd also asked William not to agree to their father's suggestion that he (William) marry Margaret Scutt. Later it came out that Bridget was three months pregnant with St. Loe's child at the time of the marriage. Two months after the marriage, on November 30, 1557, Bridget suddenly died. Six months after that, Edward St. Loe married his stepdaughter, Margaret Scutt. All this gave rise to suspicion. There was an inquisition post mortem on August 9, 1558, at which time Anthony Scutt was said to be twelve years old. In the Chatsworth House Archives is "Sir Wm. and Dame Elizabeth Sentelow vs. Edward St. Loe," a document which describes Bridget as "a verye lustye yonge woman" and hints that Edward St. Loe poisoned both John Scutt and Bridget Scutt. Nothing could be proven and although he came under suspicion again when his brother William died unexpectedly, Edward was never found guilty of murder. See MARGARET SCUTT for the rest of the story.
Elizabeth Malte may not have been a Malte at all. She was certainly the daughter of Anne Malte (d.1549), second wife and widow of John Malte (d.1547), royal tailor, because Elizabeth and her husband were executors of Anne's will. Elizabeth is not, however, mentioned in John Malte’s will, written in September 1546, even though he does make bequests to his two married daughters, his two married stepdaughters by his first wife, his unmarried bastard daughter, and a foundling child left at his gate. By then, Elizabeth was probably already married to Thomas Hilton (Hylton/Hulton), usually identified as the illegitimate son of William Hilton (d.1518), king’s tailor before John Malte. The History of Parliament identifies this Thomas Hilton as the one who served as a messenger at the royal court from 1538-40. There was a Thomas Hilton living in the parish of St. Augustine at Paul's Gate, near John Malte, in 1541, who may have been the same man. This Thomas Hilton's wealth was set at £50 in the London Subsidy Roll for Bread Street Ward. According to the History of Parliament, however, Hilton was servant of Sir John Harington of Exton by 1545 and Harington's tenant in Rutland. In September 1549, when Thomas and his wife Elizabeth were named executors of Anne Malte's will, they were living in London. Thomas Hylton, skinner, was one of the citizens taking inventory of the property of William Rastell, gentleman, for the inquisition post mortem taken on February 27, 1551. Whether this was the same man is uncertain. Thomas and Elizabeth inherited the manor of Hickmans in the hamlet of Haggerston in the northeast part of the parish of Shoreditch, purchased by Anne Malte in 1548, and were in possession of that property on April 10, 1553. They also leased other properties in St. Leonard's, Shoreditch. The History of Parliament suggests that Hilton had died by fiscal year 1565-6 when one of those leases was held by someone else.
ETHELREDA, AUDREY or ESTHER MALTE (d.c.1556)
Ethelreda Malte, also called Audrey and Esther, was the illegitimate daughter of John Malte (d.1547), Henry VIII's tailor, and Joanna Dyngley or Digneley, although the late sixteenth century Nugae Antiquae claims she was the natural daughter of the king. Alison Weir (Mary Boleyn) suggests a birth date in the late 1520s on St. Ethelreda's Day (June 23). She believes Ethelreda was the king's child. Joanna Dyngley apparently took no part in her daughter's life and was married to a man named Dobson at some point after Ethelreda’s birth. As for John Malte, he received a sizeable grant of land from the king in 1541, including the manors of Watchfield and Uffington in Berkshire, and another, with Ethelreda, in 1546. John Malte's will is dated September 10, 1546 and was proved June 7, 1547. In it he calls Ethelreda "Awdrey Malte, my bastard daughter, begotten on the body of Joane Dingley, now wife of one Dobson." She was to inherit most of his property in Berkshire, Hertfordshire, and Somerset. At that time, according to The History of Parliament entry for John Harington, she was not yet fifteen and was betrothed to an illegitimate son of Sir Richard Southwell. At some point between September 1546 and November 11, 1547, however, Ethelreda married John Harington of Stepney (1525-July 1, 1582). At that time he was in the service of Thomas Seymour, Lord Seymour of Sudeley. Ethelreda and John had one child, a daughter they named Hester (d.1631). In 1554, Ethelreda appears to have been one of Elizabeth Tudor's attendants during the princess's incarceration in the Tower of London and may have served her earlier, at Hatfield. Ethelreda was still living in October 1555, when she settled Kelston on her husband, and in early 1556. Her death occurred before April 1, 1559. Biography: Ruth Hughey's John Harington of Stepney. NOTE: Philippa Jones's The Other Tudors: Henry VIII's Mistresses and Bastards spends a good deal of time making the argument that Ethelreda's mother was Joan Moore, daughter of Sir John Moore of Dunkelyn, Worcestershire, who married first Michael Ashfield, then James Dingley, and finally Thomas Parker of Notgrove, Gloucestershire. She goes on to explain that the name Dobson was an error in transcription for Dunkelyn. This obviously doesn't work if Malte's will specifically reads "Joane Dingley, now wife of one Dobson." Jones doesn't quote that section, but does state that Malte's will left £20 "to Joan Dyngley, otherwise Joane Dobson." She further suggests a date of June 23, 1535 for Ethelreda's birth. This allows her to propose Joan as the mysterious mistress of 1534 who was a friend of Princess Mary's and a member of Queen Anne's court. Her theory appears to spring from the belief that the king would not consort with a lowborn woman like a laundress (Joan's place in the royal household according to other sources). According to Jones, John Malte lived with his daughter, Bridget Scutt, and Ethelreda continued to live with the Scutts after his death, marrying John Harington somewhat later than Harington's biographer proposes. She also believes that Ethelreda was always sickly (the excuse for her husband's interest in Isabella Markham) and died in November 1555 at St. Catherine's Court. She suggests, on very little "proof," that Harington had an earlier first wife named Esther. Jones does provide one detail on Ethelreda that I am prepared to accept, the existence of a portrait sold in 1942 to an unknown collector. It is described as three-quarter length with the subject in an "embroidered dress." There was also a portrait of Ethelreda's daughter, Hester. It has been described as a child holding a book.
MURIEL MALTE (d. March 9, 1548)
Muriel Malte (also spelled Meryell, Muryell, Merial and Meriola) was the daughter of John Malte (d.1547), the king's tailor, and his first wife. In 1545, she married John Horner (d.1587). In 1544, his father purchased Cloford, Somersetshire and John Malte purchased the manor of Podimore Milton, Somersetshire. Both properties went to the young couple on their marriage. They had three sons, William (b. before September 1546; d.yng.), Thomas (c.1547-1612), and Maurice (d. February 1621). Muriel did not receive a direct bequest in her father's will, made on September 10, 1546, but her eldest son, William Horner, "son of my daughter Horner" was left the manors of Greenhall, Bramfield and Ewell in Hertfordshire. In accordance with Malte's will, these properties reverted to the eldest son of Muriel's sister, Bridget Scutt, after William's death.
see ANNE PERCY; ELIZABETH WILLOUGHBY
see ANNE ST. LEGER
Anne Manners was the eldest daughter of Thomas Manners, earl of Rutland (c.1492-September 20, 1543) and Eleanor Paston (d.1551). She was one of the three child brides at the dynastic weddings that took place on July 3, 1536, marrying Lord Henry Neville, later 5th earl of Westmoreland (1525-February 10, 1564). He was the son of Ralph Neville, 4th earl of Westmorland and two of his sisters were also married that day, one of them to Anne's brother, another Henry. The 4th earl had eighteen children in all. Anne and Henry had six children, Charles (August 18, 1542-November 16, 1601), Eleanor, Ralph, Mary (d.1563+), Catherine (c.1541-March 27, 1591), and Adeline (c.1547-1613). Despite this, in early 1545, Lord Henry became involved in a scheme to murder Anne by witchcraft. He was arrested in September 1546 and confessed, but in March 1547, after the death of Henry VIII, he was pardoned and released. Portrait: effigy on her husband's tomb at Staindrop, Westmorland, a wooden monument erected in 1560.
Bridget Manners was the daughter of John Manners, 4th earl of Rutland (d. February 24, 1588) and Elizabeth Charleton (d. March 1594). Bridget was eleven when her father died and her mother, who had other children still at home, agreed to let Bridget’s step-grandmother, Bridget Hussey (d. January 12, 1601), widow of the 2nd earl and by that time also countess of Bedford, take over the girl’s education. Young Bridget played the lute but was otherwise uneducated. She went to Woburn Abbey in June 1588, taking with her a maid named Mary Harding. Letters from Bridget’s mother and from Mary still exist, giving more details of the arrangement. After a year in the household at Woburn Abbey, Bridget went to court as a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth. There she was a great success, not only with the queen, who eventually made Bridget her carver, but also with the gentlemen. Barnabe Barnes wrote a poem in her praise, "To the Beautiful Lady The Lady Bridget Manners," in which he called her "fairest and sweetest of all those sweet, fair flowers." She was courted by the earls of Southampton, Bedford, and Northumberland and by Lord Wharton. It was her mother’s wish, however, that she marry Robert Tyrwhitt of Kettleby, Lincolnshire (c.1573-1617), who was her (Elizabeth Charleton’s) ward and Bridget seems to have been happy with this choice. She took a month’s leave of absence from court and the marriage took place at Belvoir Castle in August 1594. The queen, however, had not given her approval for the match and she was not pleased when she heard of it. The couple was separated by royal decree and Tyrwhitt was imprisoned in the Tower. Bridget returned to court in the hope of winning Queen Elizabeth’s forgiveness, which she eventually did, although the fact that her brother, the young earl of Rutland, agreed to pay £1300 of her £2500 marriage portion to the Crown may have been a factor. The Tyrwhitts had four children: William (c.1598-1642), Robert, Bridget (d.1614), and Rutland. According to the monument her husband erected in Bigby Church, Bridget was “of speech affable, of countenance amiable, nothing proud of her place and fortunes, and usynge her grace rather to benefit others than herself.” Portraits: effigy on her father’s tomb; headless effigy on her husband's tomb in Bibgy, Lincolnshire.
see BRIDGET HUSSEY
1539-March 9, 1572)
Catherine Manners was the youngest child of Thomas Manners, 1st earl of Rutland (c.1492-September 20, 1543) and Eleanor Paston (d.1551), born at Belvoir Castle three months after her sister Gertrude's wedding at Holywell, the Rutlands' London mansion. She was named for Catherine, duchess of Suffolk. In August 1543, she married Sir Henry Capell of Little Hadham, Hertfordshire (d. June 22, 1588). She was at court during the reign of Mary Tudor. She was the mother of Sir Arthur (c.1544-April 1632), Frances (b.1548), William (September 14, 1556-before 1583), Edward (b. March 4, 1558), John (b. 1560), Gamahel (January 2, 1561-November 10, 1633), Agnes (b. January 1, 1562), Frances (b. March 18, 1564), Anne (b. June 8, 1566), Robert (b. February 19, 1567), and Mary (January 26, 1569-October 12, 1633). In March 1556, Henry and Catherine brought charges against the wife of a London innkeeper. No further details survive. In 1561, when the duchess of Suffolk had smallpox, Catherine sent a bed to the Barbican for her use.
see CECILY TUFTON
see DOROTHY VERNONX
see ELEANOR PASTON
(c.1527-August 8, 1570)
Elizabeth Manners was the daughter of Thomas Manners, 1st earl of Rutland (c.1492-September 20, 1543) and Eleanor Paston (d.1551). She married Sir John Savage (c.1523-December 5, 1597) and was the mother of his eight children: Margaret (1549-April 7, 1597), John (1550-1615), Mary, Eleanor (d.1604+), Thomas, Edward (1560-before November 29, 1622), Elizabeth, and Frances. Elizabeth is buried in the Savage Chapel, St. Michael’s Church, Macclesfield, Cheshire. Portrait: tomb effigy.
(c.1576-May 1, 1591)
Elizabeth Manners was the only child of Edward Manners, 3rd earl of Rutland (July 12, 1549-April 14, 1587) and Isabel Holcroft (d. January 16, 1606). Elizabeth was granted the title baroness Roos or Ros after her father’s death. In 1588, at age twelve, she married William Cecil (1566-1640) and had one child, also named William (May 1590-June 27, 1618).
see ELIZABETH SIDNEY
FRANCES MANNERS (c.1530-September 1576)
Frances Manners was the daughter of Thomas Manners, 1st earl of Rutland (d. 1543) and Eleanor Paston (d.1551). She married Henry Neville, Lord Bergavenny (c.1530-February 20, 1586/7) and had one child, Mary (March 25,1554-June 28,1626). As Lady Bergavenny, Frances wrote protestant prayers in both prose and verse, published after her death in The Monument of Matrones (1582), edited by Thomas Bentley. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Neville [née Manners], Frances.”
see GRACE PIERREPONT
see ISABEL HOLCROFT
see MARGARET DYMOKE; MARGARET NEVILLE
see THEODOSIA NEWTON
MARGARET MANNING (1559-December 14, 1635)
Margaret Manning was the daughter of Henry Manning of Downe, Kent (d.1583?) and Katherine Kirkener (1535-February 4, 1594). She became the third wife of Thomas Howard, Viscount Bindon (1520-January28, 1582) after his second wife's death in 1580. She married Edmund Ludlow of Hill Deverill, Wiltshire (d. November 9, 1624) after his first wife died in 1587, by whom she had Henry (1592-1643), Edmund (1595-1666), and at least four other children. Various lists online give the names Thomas, Benjamin, Jasper, William, Humphrey, Anne, Margaret, Jane, Mary, Ursula, Philippa, Joyce, Catherine, and Elizabeth. In 1595, Ludlow was living in London. He was knighted in 1601at Basing. His last years were spent in the country at Maiden Bradley, Wiltshire. Letters of administration were granted to his widow.
MARGARET MANNOCK (1544+-1612)
Margaret Mannock was the daughter of Henry Mannock of Hemingford Grey, Huntingdonshire (d.1564) and Margaret Mundy (d.1564/5). By an earlier marriage, her mother was the stepmother of Queen Catherine Howard but Margaret was not yet born when Catherine was executed. In his will, her father disinherited both his wife and his son and left everything to Margaret, to be inherited when she turned twenty or married, whichever came first. By the following year she had married Francis Cromwell alias Williams of St. Neots, Huntingdontshire (c.1541-August 5,1598). They had one son, Henry (1565-1601). By 1586, Margaret and her husband were estranged and he was paying her an annuity.
see MARGARET MUNDY
see CECILY DABRIDGECOURT
(maiden name unknown)
Edith was the wife of Philip Mansell. They had a daughter named either Alice or Jane who married Matthew Craddock in 1489 and died before her mother. They also had two sons, Philip and Richard of Chicheley, Buckinghamshire (d. November 1543). Several sources say that Edith Mansell, former mother-in-law of Matthew Craddock, was murdered in 1520, but details are lacking and, in fact, most genealogical tables show not an Edith but a Mabel (Mary/Mabilia/Mabella) Nicolas/Nicholas as the wife of Philip and mother of his children. Mabel is identified as the daughter of Sir Griffith ap Nicholas of Newton, Carmarthenshire and Jane ferch Jenkin ap Rees ap David and as the coheiress of her mother.
see ELIZABETH BACON; ELIZABETH ROPER; ELIZABETH WINGFIELD
see JANE POLE; JANE SOMERSET
ANNE MANTELL (d. 1586+) (maiden name unknown)
John Nichols, in The Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth, calls Anne Mantell Sir Philip Sidney's former wet nurse and governess, but in fact she was governess to Sidney's sisters, the short-lived Mary or Margaret (1556-1558), Elizabeth (1560-1567), and Ambrosia (c.1564-1576), and Mary (1561-1621), who grew up to be a poet and patron of the arts. Anne did have charge of young Philip (1554-1586) in 1560, when she was paid £18 6s. 3d., of which £12 was for Philip's board. Anne was the wife of Robert Mantell, who kept accounts for the Sidneys at Penshurst. Those accounts include a purple gown with lace and fringe for Anne. On February 22, 1576, Philip Sidney wrote a letter to a servant instructing him to pay £20, the sum owed for wages, to Anne Mantell, "my sister's old governess." The letter, still extant, is endorsed by Robert Mantell with the note that he received half that amount. In 1586, when Philip Sidney died, Anne Mantell was at Wilton, Wiltshire in the service of his sister Mary, who had married the earl of Pembroke in 1577.
see MARGARET WOOD
ELVIRA MANUEL (1444+-1506+)
Doña Elvira Manuel de Villena Suárez de Figueroa was the daughter of Juan Manuel de Villena Fonseca, señor de Belmonte de Campos, and Aldonza Suárez de Figueroa. She came to England in 1501 as the duenna of Catherine of Aragon and immediately came into conflict with Henry VII by disapproving of his desire to inspect the Spanish princess before her wedding to Henry’s son Arthur. Elvira was married to Don Pedro Manrique, who was also in Catherine’s household. Their son, Inigo (sometimes called Antonio) also came to England, as the master of Catherine’s pages. After Prince Arthur’s death, Elvira Manuel claimed that the marriage to Catherine had never been consummated, thus paving the way for a marriage between Catherine and Arthur’s younger brother, the future Henry VIII. Elvira was also in contact with her brother, Don Juan Manuel, who was a servant of Philip of Burgundy. In December 1505, for promoting Philip’s interests at the expense of those of Ferdinand of Aragon, Catherine’s father, Elvira was told to leave England. She departed on the pretext of visiting a doctor in Flanders about a disease that had already caused her to lose one of her eyes, but she knew that she would not be permitted to return. She had alienated not only King Henry but also Catherine of Aragon. Elvira spend the rest of the life among Spanish exiles at the court of Flanders. Catherine was said never to have spoken her name again.
see ELIZABETH VENABLES
ANNE MARBURY (July 20 1591-August 20, 1643)
Anne Marbury was the daughter of Reverend Francis Marbury of Alford, Lincolnshire (1555-February 12, 1610/11) and his second wife, Bridget Dryden (d.1645). On August 9, 1612, she married William Hutchinson of Alford, Lincolnshire (1586-1641) in the church of St. Mary Woolnoth, London. Their children were Edward, Richard, Francis, William, Samuel, William, Zuriel, Susanna, Faith, Bridget, Elizabeth, Anne, Mary, Katherine, and Susanna. In 1634, the family immigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony where, as Anne Hutchinson, Anne, a midwife, gained notoriety for her religious beliefs and was forced to remove to Portsmouth, Providence, and finally what is now Westchester County, New York, where she and several of her children were massacred by Indians. Portrait: statue in Boston, Massachusetts.
MARGARET OF AUSTRIA (January 10,1480-December 1,1530)
Margaret of Austria, also known as Margaret of Savoy, was the daughter of Maximilian I (1459-1519) and Mary of Burgundy (1457-1482) and was married in 1497 to Juan of Castile (d.1497), brother of Catherine of Aragon. In 1501, she took as her second husband Philibert II, Duke of Savoy (d.1503). Twice widowed and still young, she preferred being regent of the Netherlands to another marriage. She took over that job, and the guardianship of her brother Philip’s six children, in 1507 and remained regent until her death. She entertained Henry VIII in 1513, after his invasion of France, and was rumored to be about to marry Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk. There was no chance of that, but Margaret did accept his daughter, Anne Brandon, into her household. A very young Anne Boleyn was also part of Margaret’s household for a time. Biographies: Eleanor E. Tremayne, The First Governess of the Netherlands: Margaret of Austria (2010); Jane Iongh, Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands (1953); Marian Andrews, The High and Puissant Princess Marguerite of Austria (1907). Portraits: There are several portraits of Margaret of Austria, including the one below.
MARGARET OF PARMA (December 28, 1522-January 18, 1586)
Margaret of Parma was the illegitimate daughter of Charles V (1500-1558) and Johanna van der Gheenst. She married first Alexander de Medici, duke of Milan (d.1537) and after he was assassinated, wed Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma (October 9, 1521-September 18,1586) on November 4, 1538. By her second marriage she was the mother of Alexander Farnese, duke of Parma (1545-1592). In 1557 (some sources say from March until May and others May-June), Margaret was in England with Christina of Denmark, duchess of Lorraine, to help their cousin, Philip II, convince Elizabeth Tudor to marry the duke of Savoy. They did not even succeed in meeting the princess. Margaret’s later political interests continued to be in conflict with Elizabeth’s. She became regent of the Netherlands in 1559 and served in that capacity until 1567. During those years, thousands of textile workers fled the Netherlands for England to escape religious persecution. In 1563/4 the English privateers began to attack merchant shipping. Margaret banned the importation of English cloth in retaliation and Elizabeth responded by forbidding all imports from the Netherlands. Margaret countered by closing Netherlands ports to all English shipping. The ports soon reopened, but there was continued unrest. Philip II added to the tension by taxing the Netherlands heavily. In 1566, William of Orange began to plan rebellion and armed comflict was imminent. Margaret turned the regency over to the duke of Alva in 1567 and retired to Ortona, Italy. Portrait: in the Prado, Madrid.
see JOHANNE TURNBULL
see ANNE ROOS; ANNE STRELLEY
Gertrude Markham was the daughter of Robert Markham of Cotham, Nottinghamshire (1536-1606) and Mary Leake (1538-c.1597). She married Thomas Sadler of Standon, Hertfordshire (c.1536-January 5, 1607) and was the mother of Gertrude (d.1635) and Ralph (d. February 12, 1660). Portrait: effigy at Standon.
ISABELLA MARKHAM (March 28, 1527-May 20, 1579)
Isabella Markham was the daughter of Sir John Markham of Coltham, Nottinghamshire (1500-1564 OR c.1482-October 1559+) and his third wife, Anne Strelley (c.1495-October 12, 1554). She married John Harington of Stepney (1525-July 1, 1582) as his second wife. She may have met him when he was imprisoned in the Tower from around February 1549 until early 1550, as her father was Lord Lieutenant of the Tower of London at that time, but other records indicate that she was already in the service of Elizabeth Tudor. Her son later reported that his mother was removed from Elizabeth's service by command of Archbishop Gardiner because she was a professed heretic and that after she was dismissed even her own father did not dare take her into his house. This seems to refer to the fact that upon Elizabeth's arrest in March 1554, Isabella went to stay with a Mr. Topcliffe. Harington, meanwhile, had been at Cheshunt with Elizabeth and Isabella in January of that year and was arrested on February 8, 1554 on the basis of a compromising letter connecting him to the conspiracy of Sir Thomas Wyatt. He was held for eleven months and was finally released on January 18, 1555 on a bond of £100. Harington’s first wife, Ethelreda Malte, was one of Elizabeth's attendants for the duration of her incarceration. Isabella was the subject of Harington's poems, all of them written before his wife's death. Isabella returned to Elizabeth’s household in October 1554, when Elizabeth was set free, and remained part of that household after Elizabeth became queen. The date of Isabella’s marriage to Harington is unknown, but it was after April 1, 1559. Their son, John, was christened on August 4, 1560. Queen Elizabeth was his godmother. Their other children were Robert (d. December 6, 1601), Elizabeth (b.1559?), Francis (1564-January 22, 1639), and James (1565-1592). Isabella was a lady of the privy chamber from 1558 until her death and was rarely absent from court. She received the dedication of Thomas Palfreyman’s Divine Meditations in 1572. Biography: Most of the known facts about Isabella are included in Ruth Hughey’s John Harington of Stepney.
see MARY GRIFFIN
JOAN MARLER (d.1531) (maiden name unknown)
Joan married Richard Marler (by 1479-June 4, 1527), a grocer who was mayor of Coventry in 1509 and was the richest man in that city. She was his second wife and the mother of his son William (d.1537+). Marler wrote his will on January 12, 1527, naming Joan as one of his executors. After his death, Joan became a vowess. In her will, she left money to endow a sermon. She was buried with her husband in the Marler Chapel of Holy Trinity Church.
see BRIDGET WALDEGRAVE
Catherine Marney was the daughter of Henry, 1st baron Marney (1447-May 24, 1523) and his first wife, Thomasine Arundell. Her first marriage, to Edward Knyvett of Suffolk (c.1486-1503), was childless but he had a daughter, Elizabeth or Isabel (d. February 1508) by his first wife. Catherine inherited a life interest in his lands, including the manor of Stanway, Essex and twelve other manors and lands in Essex, Kent, and Suffolk, greatly reducing her stepdaughter's prospects. That young woman's widower, John Raynsford (d.1559) brought several suits against Catherine in chancery and eventually succeeded in winning an annuity of £20 and a life interest in two of Knyvett's manors. Meanwhile, Catherine married Thomas Bonham (1459-June 18, 1532) in 1509. They had five sons, including John (d. by 1532) and William (1513-1547+) and two daughters, including Elizabeth. In her second widowhood, she inherited a life interest in all of Bonham's lands and goods. Her third husband was John Barnaby, who had been a servant of Bonham's from as early as 1514.
Catherine Marney was the daughter and coheiress of John, 2nd baron Marney (1480-April 27, 1525) and Christian Newburgh (c.1497-August 7, 1517). She was the ward of Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk. She was betrothed to two of the earl of Sussex’s younger sons in succession and in about 1528 married the second, George Radcliffe (d.c.1532). Before 1539 (one source says May 19, 1532), she married Thomas Poynings (c.1512-August 17, 1545), who was created Baron Poynings on January 30, 1545. They had a son, christened in March 1539, but he died young.
Elizabeth Marney was the daughter and coheiress of John, 2nd baron Marney (1480-April 27, 1525) and Christian Newburgh (c.1497-August 7, 1517). She was the ward of Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk. She was betrothed to his younger son, Thomas Howard (1528-1582), later viscount Bindon, and became the first of his four wives in about 1526. She was the mother of Henry (1542-January 19, 1590), Thomas (d. March 1, 1610/11), Francis, Giles, Elizabeth, and Grace (d.1568).
GRACE MARNEY (1487-c.1553)
Grace was the daughter of Henry, 1st baron Marney (1447-May 24, 1523) and Elizabeth (Isabel) Wilford. As the wife of Catherine of Aragon’s custodian, Sir Edmund Bedingfield of Oxborough, Norfolk (1479/80-1553), she was with the imprisoned queen at Kimbolton when she died on January 7, 1536. Grace's son, Sir Henry Bedingfield (1511-1583) was one of Mary Tudor’s supporters against the duke of Northumberland.
Dorothy Marrow was the daughter and heir of Thomas Marrow of Berkswell, Warwickshire and Isabel Brome. Her first husband, married c. 1516, was Francis Cokayne of Ashbourne, Derbyshire (d. August 5, 1538). Their children were Sir Thomas, (November 27, 1520-November 15, 1592), Francis, William, Alice, and Barbara. After her husband died, Dorothy purchased her eldest son's wardship for £366. Her second husband was Sir Humphrey Ferrers of Tamworth, Staffordshire (d.1553). Her children, Thomas and Barbara, married his two children, John and Dorothy, by his first wife. Portrait: brass in Ashbourne Church to Thomas and Dorothy Cokayne, although she is not buried there.
Elizabeth Marshall was the daughter of John Marshall of Upton, Leicestershire and Elizabeth Cheek. She married Ralph FitzHerbert of Norbury, Derbyshire (1428-March 2, 1481) around 1455. Their children were Margaret, Dorothy, John (d.1531), Henry (d. before 1532), Thomas (d.1532), Richard, William, Anthony (1470-1538), Edith (1472-1511), Agnes, and Alice. It has been suggested that the Elizabeth Fitzherbert who was in the service of Elizabeth of York was her daughter but it is also possible that this was Elizabeth herself. One account says she was buried October 20, 1490. Another says she died in 1496. Her will was made in 1490. Portrait: effigy in Norbury Church.
see DORCAS ECCLESTONE
MARTIN or MARTYN
see ELIZABETH CASTLYN or CASTELIN
see MARGERY DENTON
MARY MARTYN (1557-1574)
Mary Martyn or Martin was the daughter of Sir Roger Martyn or Martin of Long Melford, Suffolk (d. December 20, 1573), a mercer and Lord Mayor of London in 1567, and his second wife, Elizabeth Castlyn or Castelin (d.1583). She was baptized Novembe 20, 1557. Mary was painted by George Gower in 1573 at the age of fifteen, to commemorate her wedding to Alexander Denton of Hillesden, Buckinghamshire (1542-1576) on June 8, 1573 at St. Antonin, Budge Row, London. They had one child, Thomas (1574-1633). Portrait: Gower portrait; effigy in All Saints, Hillesden, erected by Alexander's mother, Margaret Mordaunt, in 1576.
MARY I (February 18,1516-November 17,1558)
Mary Tudor was the only child of Henry VIII (June 28,1491-January 28,1547) and Catherine of Aragon (December 16,1485-January 7,1536) to live to adulthood. She succeeded her half brother, Edward VI to the throne and married Philip II of Spain (May 21,1527-September 13,1598). She attempted to restore Catholicism to England but died childless and was succeeded by her protestant half sister, Elizabeth I. Biographies: among others, Bloody Mary by Carolly Erikson, Mary Tudor: A Life by David Loades; The First Queen of England: The Myth of "Bloody Mary" by Linda Porter; Mary Tudor: England's First Queen by Anna Whitelock. Portraits: Numerous portraits exist, from girlhood on, although many once said to be Mary Tudor have since proven to be other ladies.
MARY OF HUNGARY (September 18,1505-October 18,1558)
Mary of Hungary was the daughter of Philip, archduke of Flanders and king of Castile (1478-1506) and Juana of Castile (November 16,1479-April 12,1555). She married Louis II of Hungary (1506-August 26,1526) on January 13,1522. They had no children. In 1530, upon the death of her aunt, Margaret of Austria, Mary’s brother, Charles V, appointed her regent of the Netherlands. She was generally pro-English, refusing to harbor Reginald Pole in 1537. In 1550, Roger Ascham, best known as Elizabeth Tudor’s tutor, wrote of Mary: “She is a virago . . . she is never so well as when she is flinging on horseback and hunting all the night long.” Once, she made the seventeen day ride from Augsburg to Brussels in thirteen days. She was succeeded as regent by her niece, Margaret of Parma. Biography: Jane de Iongh, Mary of Hungary: Second Regent of the Netherlands (1959). Portraits: in addition to painted portraits, including a joint portrait with Louis of Hungary, there is a bust in the Kunthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS (December 8,1542-February 7, 1587)
Mary, queen of Scots was the daughter of James V (1513-December 14,1542) and Marie of Guise (November 20,1515-June 11,1560) and the great-granddaughter of Henry VII of England. She was brought up in France and married to the dauphin, who became Francis II (January 19,1544-December 5,1560). Upon his death and the death of her mother, Mary returned to Scotland. There she married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley (1545-1567) and gave birth to her only child, the future James VI and I (1566-1625). After Darnley’s murder, she married James Hepburn, earl of Bothwell (1536-1578), although this was later nullified. Harried out of Scotland, she crossed into England on May 16, 1568, seeking the protection of her cousin, Elizabeth Tudor. Instead, she spent the rest of her life as Elizabeth’s prisoner and was eventually executed for conspiring to seize the throne. Biographies: There are several, but Antonia Fraser’s Mary, Queen of Scots is both engrossing and authoritative. Portraits: Many exist, dating from her girlhood in France through her captivity in England.
see MARGARET ELLERBEK
see BRIDGET BICKERDIKE
see ELIZABETH ISLEY
see MARY OR MARIA WHITE
Mary Mathews was the daughter of Thomas Mathews of Colchester, Essex. She married three times, ending up as an extremely wealthy woman. Mary Mathews' first husband was Thomas Langton of London (d.1551), a skinner. On February 7, 1551/2 she married Sir Andrew Judde (c.1490-September 7, 1558), who had been Lord Mayor of London the previous year. After his death, she married James Altham (d.1583), another wealthy merchant, a former sheriff of London who was sheriff of Essex in 1570-1 and purchased Mark Hall in Latton (now Harlow), Essex in 1562. Queen Elizabeth visited Mark Hall in 1571, 1576, and 1578. Mary may have had as many as nine children from her three marriages (some genealogies say four marriages), two sons and seven daughters, but since she referred to several of her grandchildren as her sons and daughters in her will, there is some confusion. She had at least two daughters by Langton, Mary (d.1575) and Jane (d.1609) and one, Martha, by Judde. Sir Andrew Judde left his widow Ashford Manor and Esture, Kent (worth £73/year), Barden in Hertford, worth £40/year, and land in Surrey worth £28/year. At her death, Lady Judde left some £2000 to be distributed in cash and a considerable number of household furnishings. She was buried with her third husband. Portraits: effigy on Judde tomb in St. Helen's Bishopsgate; effigy on Altham tomb in St. Mary-at-Latton Church, where she was buried.
see FRANCES BARLOW
MARY MAUNSELL or MANSEL
see MARY DANIEL
JOYCE MAUNTSELL (d.1622)
Joyce Mauntsell was of Philliberts in the parish of Bray, Berkshire. She married William Goddard, citizen of London and member of the guild of fishmongers (d.1609). He was the founder of Jesus Hospital in Bray. Portrait: effigy in Bray Church.
see ALICE SPRING
Elizabeth May was the daughter of Richard May of Mayfield, Sussex (c.1530-December 30, 1588), a merchant tailor, and Mary Hillersdon (d. December 30, 1618). She married Sir Baptist Hicks (1551-October 18, 1629) on September 6, 1584 at All Hallows, Bread Street, London. He was a wealthy mercer and moneylender. Their children were Juliana (July 1586-November 26, 1680), Mary, Elizabeth, and three sons who died young. After 1608, they acquired Campden House in Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, from which he later took his title, viscount Campden. He was also baron Hicks of Ilminster. Campden left an estate valued at well over £100,000. Elizabeth wrote her will on February 14, 1642/3. She died before June 26, 1643. Portrait: effigy on the tomb Elizabeth erected to her husband and herself in the Church of St. James, Chipping Campden.
see JANE SONDES
see MARY HILLERSDEN
see FRANCES CAVENDISH
see JANE BUSSY
FRANCES MEAUTAS, MEAUTYS or MEWTAS (d. 1627)
Frances Meautas was the daughter of Hercules Meautas of West Ham, Essex (c.1548-1587), and Philippa Cooke. She was one of the last of the maids of honor of Queen Elizabeth's reign. She married first Edward Shute (some sources say Robert Shute of Hockington, Cambridgeshire) and as a widow became the mistress of Robert Radcliffe, 5th earl of Sussex (June 12, 1569-September 22, 1629) and gave birth to his illegitimate daughter, Jane, in 1609. According to Charlotte Merton's The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, Frances offered one Mathias Evans £50/annum if he would use witchcraft, backed up by poison, to dispose of the countess of Sussex and two others. She threatened to shoot or stab Sussex if he attempted to reconcile with his wife, revealing that she carried a stiletto for this purpose. The plot was foiled when the countess brought charges of sorcery against Frances, but Frances does not appear to have been arrested. It was the last wish of Sussex's estranged wife, Bridget Morrison, that he not marry his "concubine," but Frances and Sussex wed the day after she died in December 1623.
JANE MEAUTAS, MEAUTYS or MEWTAS (1581-May 8,1659)
Jane Meautas was the daughter of Hercules Meautas of West Ham, Essex (c.1548-1587), and Philippa Cooke. She was a lady of the bedchamber to Anne of Denmark. To celebrate her marriage to Sir William Cornwallis of Brome Hall, Suffolk and London (c.1549-November 13, 1611) in 1608, Queen Anne gave Jane a jewel of gold with diamonds valued at £60. Jane and Sir William had a son, Frederick (1610-1661). Jane was left a wealthy widow with complete control of her property and her son's upbringing, although Cornwallis’s entry in the History of Parliament states that he died with debts of nearly £4000, to be paid by selling off five manors. Jane was his executrix. In the spring of 1614 she married Nathaniel Bacon (1585-1627), youngest son of Sir Nicholas Bacon of Redgrave, Suffolk, but not before a lengthy correspondence established her right to continue to manage her own affairs and retain control of an independent income. In addition, Nicholas was granted the Bacon family estate at Culford, Suffolk. Jane's claim to fame today comes from the publication in 1842 of her private correspondence for the years 1613-1644. A more recent edition of the letters was published in 2003, edited by Joanna Moody. Jane and her second husband had three children, Anne (b.1615), Nicholas (b.1617), and Jane (February 1624-1627). Later in life, Jane also became guardian for her nephew (son of her brother Thomas) and her son Frederick's children. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under "Bacon, Jane." Portrait: full length portrait, artist unknown. NOTE: Oxford DNB entry (written by Joanna Moody) suggests that this might instead be Jane's mother-in-law, Anne Thornage, Lady Bacon.
CATHERINE de’ MEDICI (April 13,1519-January 5,1589)
Catherine de’ Medici was queen, then queen mother of France. She was the daughter of Lorenzo, duke of Urbino (d.May 4,1533) and Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne, countess of Boulogne (1516-April 28,1533). After the death of her husband, Henri II (1519-1559) and that of her oldest son, Francis II (January 19,1544-December 5,1560), she served as regent for the next two kings, Charles IX (June 27,1550-May 30,1574) and Henri III (September 19,1551-August 2,1589). She hoped to convince Queen Elizabeth to become her daughter-in-law, and negotiations progressed as far as a visit to England by François, duc d'Anjou and d’Alençon (March 18,1555-June 19,1584) in 1579. Catherine herself never met Elizabeth Tudor. Her other children were Elizabeth, queen of Spain (April 2,1545-October 3,1568), Claude, duchess of Lorraine (November 12,1541-February 21,1575), Louis, duc d'Orleans (February 3, 1549-October 24, 1549), Marguerite, queen of Navarre and France (May 14,1553-March 17,1615), and twins, Victoria and Joan, born June 24, 1556, who died young. Biographies: Leonie Frieda's Catherine de’ Medici: Renaissance Queen of France, R. J. Knecht's Catherine de’ Medici, and Irene Mahoney's Madame Catherine. Portraits: numerous.
see MARGARET WOTTON
see MARY DANNETT
AGNES MELLORS (maiden name unknown) (d.c.1514)
Agnes Mellors was the widow of Richard Mellors of Nottingham (d.1507), a wealthy bell founder who was mayor of Nottingham and 1499-1500 and again in 1505-6 and had a house in Broad Street. After his death, she became a vowess and founded the Nottingham Free School in the parish of St. Mary. Although many online accounts say the school opened at Candlemas, 1513, the letters patent from King Henry VIII are dated November 22, 1514 and were issued to Sir Thomas Lovell, treasurer of the household, and Dame Agnes Mellors, widow. She gave a tenement in St. Peter's churchyard, let at £26 8s/year, with other tenements, to fund the school and she and the mayor chose the first schoolmaster. The family continued to leave bequests to the school for several decades and from these it appears Agnes and Richard were the parents of Robert (will dated July 16, 1515), Thomas (will dated August 16, 1535), Alice (John Heskay, her husband, wrote his will in 1558), and John (d.1558+). Elizabeth Gellestrope, probably also her daughter, in her will dated April 12, 1543, gave two stables at the back side of Rotten Row to the use and maintenance of the school. The school, rebuilt in 1830, continued to be used into the twentieth century and there are still numerous groups and places named after Agnes in Nottingham today, including the Dame Agnes Mellors Pub.
September 21, 1557)
Dorothy Melton was the daughter and heiress of Sir John Melton of Aston (c.1470-February 26, 1545) and Catherine Hastings (c.1479-December 21, 1557). She married Sir George Darcy (1487-August 23, 1558), and their children were Mary, Thomas, Elizabeth (1537-December 26, 1577), John (1540-October 1602), Agnes (d.c.1573), William, George, Edith (d. October 1585), and Dorothy. In early 1537, just after the Pilgrimage of Grace, she wrote to her husband, begging him to come home to her and their children because of the danger of further rebellion they faced. He was created Baron Darcy of Aston in 1548.
Elizabeth Melville was the daughter of Sir James Melville of Hallhill (1535/6-November 13,1617) and Christina Boswell. Her father was the author of memoirs. Elizabeth wrote poetry and was also a deeply religious woman who supported exiled and excommunicated Presbyterian ministers. She married John Colville of Culros, by whom she had three sons, Samuel, James, and Alexander (1620-1676). In his dedication to her in 1599 of his Hymnes, or, Sacred Songs, protestant minister Alexander Hume makes reference to Elizabeth’s “copious” compositions. In 1603, her “Ane Godlie Dreame compylit in Scottish Meter bi M.M., Gentilwoman in Culros at the request of her freindis” was printed in Edinburgh. It was originally in Scots dialect but an English edition followed and the piece soon became a popular Calvinist tract. There were four editions by 1606 and it continued to be printed as late as 1644. An excerpt reads: "I looked up unto that Castle fair,/Glist'ring like gold and shining silver bright:/The stately towers did mount above the air;/They blinded me they cast so great a light./My heart was glad to see that joyful sight./My voyage then I thought was not in vain;/I him besought to guide me there aright,/With many vows never to tire again." A number of her letters are also extant. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Melville, Elizabeth.”
see JANE KENNEDY
MENDOZA (June 29,
1540- February 2, 1592)
Ana de Mendoza de la Cerda was the only child and heir of Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, duke of Francavilla (d. March 15, 1578) and his first wife, Catalina de Silva (d.1576). When her mother died, she left behind a library with three hundred books in Spanish, French, and Latin. In 1552, the king arranged for Ana to marry to a Portuguese nobleman living in Spain, Ruy Gómez de Silva, prince of Éboli (1516-July 29, 1573). They wed on April 18, 1553 in Madrid. The bridegroom accompanied King Philip to England in 1554 while Ana, still too young to consummate her marriage, remained in Spain. The story goes that, as a girl of fourteen, which would have been while her husband was in England, Ana lost the eyesight in her right eye in an accident while mock fencing with a page. Another version of the tale is that she wore a decorative eye patch because she was cross-eyed. In spite of the eye patch, which is seen in all her portraits, she was considered one of the most beautiful women in Spain. She was at court during King Philip's second marriage, to Elizabeth de Valois, and was close friends with the queen. She had a number of titles, between her father and her husband, including princess of Éboli, countess of Mélito, duchess of Pastrana (her country estate), duchess of Francavilla, and countess of Aliano. She bore her husband ten children: Diego (c.1558-1563), Ana (1560-1610), Rodrigo (1562-1596), Pedro, Diego (1564-1630), Ruy, Fernando (1570-1639), Maria, and another Ana (1573-1614). After her husband died, Ana spent the next three years in a Carmelite convent but in 1576 she returned to court. There she soon became involved in various intrigues. Conflicting details make it difficult to sort out truth from fiction. One account has her attempting to place one of her children on the throne of Portugal. Another accuses her of an affair with Antonio Pérez (1540-1615), a protégé of her husband (rumored to be his illegitimate son), secretary to the king since 1566 and, by 1576, undersecretary of state. In 1578 one Juan de Escobedo, secretary to Juan of Austria, the king's illegitimate half brother, was murdered. In 1579, both the princess of Éboli and Antonio Pérez were arrested, the princess on July 28, 1579 by order of Phllip II. Again, stories vary. Was he arrested for the murder of Escobedo or for betraying state secrets or both? Was the princess arrested on either or both of those charges or was she accused of living an indecent lifestyle and mismanaging her money? Some accounts argue that her alliance with Pérez was entirely political. Whatever the truth, she was held first in the castle at Santocray and later moved to a suite of rooms at Pastrana (some accounts say one room, but this is doubtful). Her youngest daughter, who later became a nun, shared her imprisonment, along with a few faithful servants. Pérez was reportedly imprisoned but escaped when his wife visited him and they exchanged clothes. He fled to England and died in Paris. The princess spent thirteen years in confinement and, although she reportedly once accused her guards of trying to poison her, died of natural causes. Some believe that she was the inspiration for a play by John Webster, The Duchess of Malfi, written in 1612-12 and set in 1504-10 in the Italian state of Amalfi. Webster, who was born c.1580, could certainly have heard about the notorious princess of Éboli and her alleged lover and turned them into his duchess (who does not have a given or surname in the play) and the man she secretly marries, a character named Antonio. The rationale for this theory can be found in John Webster by M. C. Bradbrook. Since then, the princess has appeared in many more works of fiction, including the Verdi opera Don Carlos. There is one other connection to England, a bit later than the Tudors, but still significant. She is said by one source to have been the great-great-grandmother of Catherine of Braganza, queen of King Charles II, but I haven't turned up the exact line of descent. Portraits: several, all showing her wearing an eye patch over her right eye.
see ELIZABETH FARTHING
BARBARA MERES (d.1642)
Barbara Meres was the daughter of Sir John Meres of Aubourn/Oldboro, Lincolnshire and Barbara Dallison. In 1603, she was the young bride of a man in his fifties, Peter Eure or Evers of London and Washingborough, Lincolnshire (c.1549-June 12, 1612). They had four children in five years and five in all: Ralph (1604-1665), Edward, Thomas, Michael, and Barbara. Eure made his will on November 13, 1611, leaving his wife her jointure lands in South Langton, the manor of Washingborough, and household goods and plate. She continued to live at Washingborough until she remarried in 1614. She continued to be known as Lady Eure even after she married Sir William Saltmarsh of Strubby (1578-16??), by whom she had Edward, Thomas, William, Anthony, and Elizabeth. If I am reading the inscription on his tomb correctly, Barbara then married William Godferey of Thoneoke (1577-October 4, 1657), by whom she had William and Barbara.
see AMY CLARKE
see ELIZABETH MOMPESSON
LUCY MERVYN (c.1565-1609/10)
Lucy Mervyn was the daughter of Sir James Mervyn (Marvyn/Marvin) of Fonthill Gifford, Wiltshire (1529-May 1, 1611) and Amy Clarke (d.1575+). She married George Touchet, lord Audley of Heleigh (1551-February 20, 1617), who was created earl of Castlehaven in 1617. Their children were Mervyn, 2nd earl (c.1592-1631), Anne, Elizabeth, Mary (d.1611), Christian, Eleanor (d.1652), and Sir Ferdinand. Some of her correspondence is extant, including a letter to her half sister (see ELIZABETH HORNE).
see ELIZABETH CLIFFORD
see ALICE HUTCHEN
FRANCES MEWTAS (d.1600+)
Frances Mewtas was the daughter of Sir Peter Mewtas (d.1562) and Jane or Joan Ashley (c.1517-c.1551?), both of whom served at the court of Henry VIII. She was at court, probably as a maid of honor, from 1558-1565, as her sister Cecily may also have been. She was courted by Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford, before he made a secret marriage to Lady Catherine Grey in 1561. On February 10, 1566, she married Henry Howard (1542-January 16, 1591), by whom she had a daughter, Douglas (January 29, 1571/2-1590). In 1578-80, as recounted in "The Privy Council and Private Morality," by Lamar M. Hill (in State, Sovereign, and Society, edited by Charles Carlton), Robert Barbott of Dorchester and his wife were rebuked by the Privy Council for having used "some dishonest practices to brede discorde betwene Mr. Henry Howard and his wife," although there was apparently trouble in the marriage without their interference. Howard promised to reform his conduct. When he did not and the Council learned of it, his father, Thomas Howard, viscount Howard of Bindon, was told to send Henry to court, accompanied by Frances, unless "his Lordship shall thincke she cannot convenientlie come in his company." In that case, he was arrange for her to travel separately. That was September 1580. Hill adds that Henry Howard, who succeeded his father as viscount Howard of Bindon in 1582, "continued for another decade to visit on the Council his tortured relationship with his wife." Her second husband was Edmund Stansfield of Stansfield. They were married before June 2, 1595.
JANE or JOAN MEWTAS
see JANE or JOAN ASHLEY
see MARGARET BABTHORPE
MARGARET MEYRICK (d.c.1628)
Margaret Meyrick was the daughter of Gelly Meyrick or Merrick of Gellyswick, Hascard, Pembrokeshire (c.1556-x.March 13, 1601) and Margaret Lewys. Her father arranged her marriage to Sir John Vaughan of Golden Grove, Carmarthenshire (c.1575-May 6, 1634), by whom she had at least two children, Richard (c.1600-December 3, 1686) and Elizabeth (d.c.1641). A few weeks before the earl of Essex's rebellion, Margaret conveyed her father's plate and chattels to her husband's house. For having possession of this "treasure" she was included in her father's attainder. He was executed. She and her surviving brother were restored in blood and name in 1606. Vaughan was created Baron Vaughan in 1621 and earl of Carbery in 1628. The date of Margaret's death is uncertain but her husband had taken a second wife before his death in 1634.
see ALICE BROCK
MARGERY MIDDLECOTT (d. February 1588)
Margery or Margaret Middlecott was probably the daughter of Richard Middlecott of Bishopstow, Wiltshire (d. 1569), a wealthy clothier, and Margaret Stokes (d.1584). She married twice, first to Thomas Burges (Bruges; Bridges; Brydges) of Leigh upon Mendip, Somerset (d.1543), who left money in his will to his weavers. They had three children, Thomas (d.1622), James, and Elinor. Margery then married Phillip Cottington (d.1562), another clothier, and lived with him in the same house she’d shared with Burges. With Cottington, she had five children, Phillip (d.1615), Edward, James, Silvestre (d.1593+), and John (d.1597). In 1573, Margery deeded the manor of Godmanston to her son Phillip Cottington and bought the parsonage of Shepton Montacute for her daughter Silvestre, the wife of Robert Dackombe (d. May 12, 1621). According to a member of the Bruges family, who kindly provided me with most of this information, Margery, who outlived both of her husbands, was a shrewd businesswoman. She was buried in Leigh upon Mendip churchyard.
MARY MIDDLEMORE (d. January 3, 1617/18)
Mary Middlemore was the daughter of Henry Middlemore of Enfield, Middlesex (d. before 1594) and Elizabeth Fowke or Fowkes (d. December 1623). Her father, a groom of the chamber to Queen Elizabeth, leased Enfield in Middlesex from the queen in 1582 for fifty-one years. Her mother remarried by 1594. Her second husband, Vincent Skinner (d. February 28,1616), who took over the lease (NOTE: his entry in the History of Parliament calls her the widow of Edward Middlemore of Enflied). By February 2, 1603/4, Mary was at court as one of the maids of honor to Queen Anne and served in that capacity until her death. Her brother Robert was an equerry to the king. In 1608, she received a grant of 1000 marks from King James. In 1610, a memorial was erected to her parents in Enfield even though her mother was still living. In 1617, Mary was granted a license to search by deputy for treasure trove and books in St. Albans, Glastonbury, St. Edmondsbury, and Romney. One third of anything she found was to go to the king. She was buried in Westminster Abbey on January 4, 1617/18.
see ALICE HARPUR
Alice Middleton was the daughter of John Middleton of Hitchin, Hertfordshire (1471-October 1509), a London mercer, and Alice Harpur (c.1474-1536). Her mother remarried in 1511, taking as her second husband Sir Thomas More and bringing Alice into the circle of More’s highly educated daughters. She was treated as his daughter "in other things and learning both." In 1517, Alice married Thomas Erlington or Elrington of Willesden, Middlesex (1490-January 1523), a marriage arranged by More. They had three children, Thomas (c.1520-1566), Simon, and John. In 1524, Alice remarried, taking as her second husband (his second of three wives) Sir Giles Alington of Horseheath, Cambridgeshire (June 1499-August 22, 1586), by whom she is said by some sources to have had ten children (four sons and six daughters) and by others only five. They included Elizabeth, Joan, and Sir Richard. Correspondence from 1534 between Alice Alington and Margaret More Roper is extant. Alice was buried with her second husband in Horseheath Church.
January 26, 1614/15)
Hester Middleton or Myddelton was the daughter of Sir Thomas Myddelton (1550-August 12, 1631), a wealthy merchant who was Lord Mayor of London in 1613 but had roots in Denbighshire, and his second wife, Jane (or Elizabeth) Danvers (d.1598+), although Hester seems to have been named after Myddelton's first wife, Hester Saltonstall, who was buried on July 21, 1586 in St. Dunstan's in the East, London. The family lived, after 1595, in a house called The Bear in Tower Street. It was not until after Hester married Sir Henry Salusbury/Salisbury (d. August 2, 1632) that her father established himself at Stansted Mountfitchet, Essex. Hester had at least one child, Sir Thomas Salusbury (d.1643). Portrait: effigy in St. Mary's Church, Stansted Mountfitchet, showing her in hunting clothes.
MAGDALEN MIDDLETON (d. November 30, 1591)
Magdalen Middleton may have been the daughter of Sir Robert Middleton of Leighton Hall, Arnshed, Westmorland, and Anne Betham or of Robert Middleton, alderman and bailiff of Colchester, Essex (d.c.1579). She married Thomas Colt (1517-June 29, 1559), younger half brother of the wife of Sir Thomas More. They had six sons and four daughters, including Catherine and John. Magdalen erected a monument to her husband and herself in Waltham Abbey, Essex in 1576. According to David McKeen's A Memory of Honour: the life of William Brooke, Lord Cobham, Cobham borrowed money from Thomas Colt before Colt's death and had not paid it back as late as 1587. Records exist of Magdalen's efforts to collect the debt in the years between 1579 and 1587.
see MARGARET PRATT
MARGARET MIDDLETON (1552/3-x. March 25,1586)
Margaret Middleton was the daughter of Thomas Middleton (d.1567) and Jane Turner (c.1515-1585). She married John Clitherow on July 1, 1571 and had by him four children, Henry (b.1572), Anne (1574-August 3, 1622), a daughter b.c.1576, and a son b.c.1581. In 1574, Margaret converted to Catholicism. From 1576, her husband paid regular fines for her recusancy. She was imprisoned in York Castle from August 1577-February 1578, again from October 1580-April 1581, and a third time from March 1583-winter 1585. While in prison, she learned to read. On March 10, 1586, she was arrested again, this time for harboring a priest, which had been made a treasonous offense in 1581. She was arraigned on March 14 and condemned to be pressed to death. The sentence ws carried out in the toll-booth on Ouse Bridge. Although some of her contemporaries suggested that she was insane, Margaret Clitherow became a martyr and a role model for other recusants. She was canonized in 1970. Biography: K. Longley’s Saint Margaret Clitherow (1986); Oxford DNB entry under “Clitherow [née Middleton], Margaret.” Portraits: engravings showing her martyrdom;
BLANCHE MILBORNE (d.1557)
Blanche Milborne was the daughter of Simon Milborne of Tillington, Herefordshire and Jane Baskerville. She was bilingual, born in England but living in a Welsh environment. She was married first in 1494 to James Whitney of Whitney and Pen-cwm (c.1466-June 30,1500). Her dowry was the manor of Ilcomb in Gloucestershire. When she was widowed, she was left with three young children—Robert (c.1495-1540/1), Elizabeth, and James. Two others, Watkin or Walter and Anne, had died young. She remarried soon after, taking as her second husband William Herbert of Troy Parva (d. April 1524). They had three sons, including Charles (c.1501-1557) and Thomas (d. October 8, 1588), and in August 1502 entertained King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Troy House near Monmouth. They were frequent guests of the duke of Buckingham at Thornbury. In 1516, William Herbert was knighted. In the late 1520s and early 1530s, Blanche was probably part of the Countess of Worcester’s household and may have acted as governess to the earl’s children. She may have been put in charge of Princess Mary’s household as early as 1531, when Mary was separated from her mother, Catherine of Aragon. Sometimes referred to as Lady Herbert and other times as Lady Troy, Blanche was the one charged with giving their earliest lessons to both Princess Elizabeth and Prince Edward. In each household in turn she became Lady Mistress when Lady Bryan relinquished that post. She carried Elizabeth’s train at the christening of Prince Edward in 1537. She was still in the Lady Elizabeth’s household as late as 1545 but had left by the time King Henry died in 1547. Lady Troy retired to Troy House, living there into her late seventies. Biography: The information above is condensed from the account in the biography of Blanche Milborne’s niece and goddaughter, Blanche Parry, Ruth Elizabeth Richardson’s Mistress Blanche: Queen Elizabeth’s Confidante. Other sources tend not to mention Blanche Milborne in connection with either Mary or Elizabeth.
see JOAN HILL
see FRANCES RADCLIFFE
see GRACE SHERRINGTON
MARY MILDMAY (1582-1640)
Mary Mildmay was the daughter and heir of Sir Anthony Mildmay of Apethorpe, Northamptonshire (c.1549-September 2, 1617) and Grace Sharington (1552-July 27, 1620). Her worth as an heiress was £3000/year and she could anticipate inheriting another £1200/year from her mother. In 1599, she married Francis Fane of Badsell, Tudeley, Kent (1580- March 23, 1629), by whom she had seven sons and six daughters: Mildmay (January 24, 1602-February 12, 1666), Thomas (d.yng.), Francis (c.1611-1681?), Anthony (1613-1643), George (c.1616-1663), William, Robert, Grace, Mary, Elizabeth, Rachael, Frances, and Catherine. Their principal residence was in Mereworth, Kent. Fane was created earl of Westmorland in 1624 and succeeded to his mother's title as Baron le Despenser in 1626. In his will, dated December 8, 1628, he named his wife as executor. He left each of his two unmarried daughters a portion of £3000. Portrait: unknown artist, unknown date (part of pair with her husband).
THOMASIN MILDMAY (c.1512-May 20, 1579+)
Thomasin Mildmay was the daughter of Thomas Mildmay of Chelmsford, Essex (d.c.1547) and Agnes Read (d.1557). She married c.1540 Anthony Bourchier of Barnsley, Gloucestershire (d. July 13, 1551), auditor to Queen Kathryn Parr. They had three sons and one daughter, including Thomas (c.1542-before January 29, 1579/80) and Edward (d.1554+). Thomasin then married William Thomas of London and Llanthomas, Wales (x. May 18,1554) as his second wife. He was granted her eldest son's wardship on March 31, 1553 but in December of that year he was alleged to have committed treason by discussing Queen Mary's death. In February 1554, his property was seized and he was in the Tower. On the night of February 25-6, he tried to kill himself with a bread knife. He was tried on May 9 and executed nine days later by being hanged, drawn, and quartered. Thomasin had one child by Thomas, a daughter named Anne (d.1566+). On December 13, 1554, Queen Mary granted Thomasin all her late husband 's goods and the manor of Garway and other lands in Herefordshire, including the prebend of Nunnington. She was later sued in Chancery by Henry Welsh, the Lord Chancellor's chaplain, who claimed he'd been promised the next vacancy there.
Bridget Mill was the daughter of John Mill or Mills (c.1475-May 3, 1551), town clerk of Southampton, and his wife Alice. Her first husband was John Huttoft (d.1542/3) of Southampton. They wed in 1539 and had three daughters. When Huttoft's brother-in-law, Antonio Guidotti left the country owing enormous debts, the entire family was faced with years of financial difficulties. Because of this, Bridget did not prove her husband's will until 1561. Meanwhile, in 1543, she married, as his second wife, Nicholas Thorne (d. August 19, 1546), benefactor of the Bristol grammar school, by whom she had two children, Bridget and John. Her third husband was James Paget. See also URSULA HUTTOFT. Portrait: memorial brass with her second husband and his first wife, now in Bristol Grammar School.
Elizabeth Mills's parentage is uncertain. Her mother's first name appears to have been Bridget. Elizabeth married four times, all to London men, suggesting that her family was also native to that place. The first wedding took place on April 12, 1539 in St. Pancras, Soper Lane, probably her parish. Her first husband was Richard King (d.1545). He was buried on May 5, 1545 in All Hallows, Bread Street. They had three children, Catherine (b.1540), Mary (b.1542), and John. Husband number two was Thomas Worthington (d.1547), They were married in 1545 in St. Margaret's, Westminster. He was buried in St. Dunstan in the West. No children are listed for them in the records of that parish. On November 16, 1547, Elizabeth married Walter Fish or Fyshe, citizen and Merchant Taylor of London (d.1585). They had nine children, but several young. What records there are, some with names and some without, are from St. Antholin, Budge Row. Among the children listed are Richard (d.1555), Cornelius (d.1626), Philip (d.1578+), and Elizabeth (November 19, 1558-1578+). Fish was the queen's tailor from 1558-1582. He made his will in September 1578, leaving his widow occupancy of their dwelling house in Blackfriars for life along with a life interest in a lease in Shalford, Essex. The wording of this document indicates that Fish had Puritan leanings. He was buried in St. Antholin on July 26, 1585. Probate was granted to Elizabeth on November 27, 1585. She married for the fourth time on June 29, 1589 at St. Antholin. Her new husband was Henry Jay (d.1601). She was his second wife. He was buried at St. Antholin on March 2, 1601. Elizabeth did not marry again. She was herself buried at St. Antholin on June 21, 1610.
see AGNES HOWE
see ALICE SQUIRE
see ELIZABETH DONNE
MARY MIRFYN (d.1542)
Mary Mirfyn was the daughter of Sir Thomas Mirfyn (d.1523), Lord Mayor of London in 1518, and (probably) his first wife, Alice Marshall, since she was already married (or at least betrothed to) Sir Andrew Judde (c.1490-September 4, 1558), at the time of her father's death. Some genealogies, however, say that her mother was his second wife, Elizabeth Don or Donne, which would place her birth date at 1519 at the earliest, and give her date of marriage as 1537. She was the mother of John, Richard, Andrew, Thomas, Elizabeth and Alice (c.1533-1592/3) Judde. There is a great deal of confusion about Sir Andrew's wives. Wife number three was also named Mary and some accounts say she was Mary Mirfyn. See MARY MATHEWS. An alternate date of death for Mary Mirfyn is November 14, 1550, but this is more likely the date of death for Judde's second wife, Agnes.
or ELLEN MITCHELL
Margaret (called Ellen or Helen by the Oxford DNB) Mitchell was the daughter of William Mitchell and Margaret Cromwell (genealogies) or of John Mitchell of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire (DNB & History of Parliament). She married first one Ralph or Matthew (DNB) Barré or Barr, a London tradesman who abandoned her and their two children. Some accounts say that she worked as a laundress in the household of Thomas Cromwell, later earl of Essex, but as he may have been her cousin (Margaret Cromwell was his aunt), she may simply have been a dependent. In any case, it was there that she met Sir Ralph Sadler/Sadlier/Sadleir of Hackney, Middlesex and Standon, Hertfordshire (1507-March 30, 1587). Since Barré had gone abroad and was presumed dead, she married Sadler around 1533 and they had seven children—Thomas (1534-January 5, 1606/7), Edward (1537-April 4, 1584), Henry (1539-March 17, 1618), Anne (d.1576), Mary, Dorothy (d.1578+), and Jane (d.c.1587) When her first husband turned up, inconveniently alive, it required a private act of Parliament in 1546 to legitimize her children by Sadler.
see ALICE BENTLEY
EDITH MOHUN (1566-1628)
Edith Mohun was the daughter of William Mohun of Hall and Bocconoc, Cornwall (c.1540-April 6, 1588) and his first wife, Elizabeth Horsey and married Sir Ralph Horsey of Clifton Maybank, Dorset (1550-November 11, 1612). Peter Coles (or Colse) dedicated his Penelope's Complaint to Lady Horsey in 1596, also praising Sir Ralph and their daughter, Grace, but there was more than the hope of a reward behind the gesture. Although facts are scarce after all this time, the rumor persists that there was a scandal involving Rafe Horsey and Sir Walter Raleigh, and that the entire Horsey family was offended by an earlier poem by Henry Willoughby, another Oxford scholar. Willobie his Avisa (1594) may have used Sir Ralph, who was Lord Lieutenant of Dorset, as the model for the "nobleman" who tries and fails to win Avisa, the virtuous innkeeper's wife. The Horseys had five sons and three daughters, including George (1577-1640).
see MARTHA DORSETT
see AURELIA FLORIO
see MARY CARYLL
see ELIZABETH SOUTHWELL
see CATHERINE PAKINGTON
September 25, 1581)
Elizabeth Mompesson was one of the four daughters of John Mompesson of Bathampton, Wiltshire (d. May 3, 1511) and Alice Lye or Leighe (d. between 1513 and 1516). Her first husband was Sir Richard Perkins or Parkyns of Ufton Robert Manor, Berkshire (1500-1560). She was responsible for saving his life on June 10, 1534, when a hot-tempered neighbor, Sir Humphrey Forster of Aldermaston House, burst into Ufton Robert Manor and assaulted him. Forster had already attacked Pam Hall, assaulted Francis Perkins, brother of Richard, and taken him prisoner. Forster had drawn his sword, threatening Richard, when Elizabeth intervened and somehow persuaded him to leave. He took Francis with him, however, and imprisoned him overnight at Aldermaston. Richard and Francis's wife brought suit against Forster but the results are not known. More details can be found at Royal Berkshire History. The court transcripts indicate that Elizabeth and Richard had young children in 1534, but they had died before January 26, 1558/9, when Richard made his will. He left her custody of two of his late brother William's children, Francis and Dorothy. Elizabeth's second husband was her second cousin, Sir John Mervyn of Fountayne or Fonthill Gifford, Wiltshire (d. June 19, 1566). She was his second wife. She also had children by Sir John, but none of them lived either. Sir John left a will, said to have been written on the day he died. His oldest son, James, challenged its validity, claiming it had really been written by Elizabeth and the priest, William Gyll. He brought suit against them for forgery. Elizabeth's witnesses were "servingmen, handmaidds, ladds, and girles" but once again the resolution of the case is missing. At the time Sir John died, there was a "wooing" in progress between his daughter, Margaret Mervyn and Francis Perkins, Lady Mervyn's nephew and ward. They later married and in her will (dated July 24, 1581 and proved September 27, 1581), Elizabeth Mervyn made them her heirs. She also left instructions, contrary to those in Sir John's will, that she be buried beside her first husband at Ufton. In addition, she left what is known as the Ufton Dole, which is still distributed today. This is said to have been given in gratitude for finding her way back home after becoming lost in the woods.
see ELIZABETH OGLETHORPE
see MARY HOWARD
DOROTHY MONK or MONCK (1564-1633+)
Dorothy Monk or Monck was the daughter of Sir Thomas Monk of Potheridge, Devon and his second wife, a Patswell. Before 1582, she married John Killigrew of Arwennack (c.1554-August 12, 1605), who quickly began to run through her fortune. He was a somewhat notorious character, having dealings with pirates and involved in other nefarious activities. In 1582, Dorothy herself was accused of participating in a raid on a ship at anchor in Falmouth harbor, along with the two Lady Killigrews, Elizabeth Trewinard and Mary Wolverston (see those entries for details). Two of John Killigrew’s uncles managed to keep the three women out of prison. In 1587, Dorothy’s husband was charged with robbery, but once again his uncle, Sir Henry Killigrew, came to the rescue and made restitution for him. In 1595, John Killigrew was summoned to London to answer charges of piracy and debt and in 1598, at a time when he kept a London house in Canon Row and had another house in Falmouth, he was sent to Fleet Prison on charges of piracy and treason. On September 7, 1599, Dorothy visited Dr. Simon Forman the astrologer. In his notes he recorded that she was thirty-five and pregnant. Killigrew died in prison. He and Dorothy had nine sons and five daughters.
see FRANCES PLANTAGENET
see MARGARET STEWART
see ELEANOR ROPER
see ELIZABETH HARINGTON
see ANNE VACHELL
see LORA BERKELEY
see ROBERDA LORGES
(d.1520+) (maiden name unknown)
The name Katherine de Montoya is on the list of Spanish ladies who remained in England with Catherine of Aragon in 1501. She is said to have held a post equivalent to Mother of Maids. She is listed again, as Catherine Mountoria, among Catherine’s ladies at the Field of Cloth of Gold, together with one woman servant. Her son, Juan de Montoya, who had lived in England all his life, joined the household of Eustace Chapuys, ambassador of Charles V, when Chapuys arrived in England in 1529. He had previously been a gentleman usher to the queen.
see DEBORAH DUNCH
Jane Moore was one of three daughters of John Moore of Dunclent, Worcestershire (d.1535) and Eleanor Milborne. By 1534, she was married to James Dingley and the lease on property at Northleach, Gloucestershire had been settled on them as part of her jointure. By 1539, this belonged to Jane and her second husband, Michael Ashfield (d.1540/1), a gentleman from Hetrop, Oxfordshire. By 1546, Jane was married to her third husband, Thomas Parker of London (d.1558). In April of that year they acquired the lease on the manor of Northleach but by the following year he had purchased nearby Notgrove Manor. In his will, made August 15, 1558 and proved December 15, he named Jane as executor, to enjoy the revenues of his lands for life, and left bequests to their three sons, Edmund, Thomas, and Michael, and his stepchildren. They also had a daughter. The notoriously speculative The Other Tudors: Henry VIII's Mistresses and Bastards by Philippa Jones, offers the theory that Jane (or Joan) Moore was the Joanna Dyngley whose illegitimate daughter, raised as Ethelreda (or Audrey) Malte, was actually one of the king's bastards. She also speculates that Jane was the royal mistress who so infuriated Anne Boleyn that she tried to send her away from court. Jones's argument, in which she mistakes James Dingley for Jane's second husband, is that Dingley had recently died when his widow began an affair with the king c.1534. Jones then gives Eltheleda's birth date as June 23, 1535. To overcome the difficulty of a will that clearly states that Joanna Dyngley, Ethelreda's mother, was married to a man named Dobson in 1547, Jones explains that the person who copied the will misread "alias Dobson" as a reference to a husband when it was, in fact, a reference to the Moore family's lands, variously spelled Douklin or Dunkelyn. This seems a stretch, especially when Jane Moore's life is so well documented otherwise. Jones provides no explanation for how she might have come to the king's attention. It does not seem likely that she'd have been at court, even if she was in London before her marriage to Parker.
see EDITH LATIMER
see JOAN FERMOR
Margaret Mordaunt was the daughter of John Mordaunt, 1st baron Mordaunt of Turvey (1490-August 18,1562) and Elizabeth de Vere (c.1491-before 1584). In about 1526, she married Edmund Fettiplace of Besselsleigh, Berkshire (c.1505-April 1, 1540). Their children were John (1526/7-December 25, 1580), Thomas (1540-February 15, 1616), George (1534-July 21, 1577), Edward or Edmund, William, Elizabeth, Jane , Anne (d. August 16, 1568), and Dorothy. Her second husband, married by 1542, was Thomas Denton of Hillesden, Buckinghamshire (d. October 3, 1558), a lawyer and MP, by whom she had Alexander (1542-76) and Alice. According to Denton's will, dated July 20, 1557, Margaret was to have Hillesden for life with Alexander to inherit it eventually, along with his father's library. His wardship was granted to his mother in November 1559. When Alexander died, Margaret erected a monument to him in Hillesden Church. Portrait: brass with her first husband in All Saints, Marcham and marble effigy with her second in All Saints, Hillesden.
see AGNES HUSSEY
Alice More was the daughter of Sir John More of Loseley and his wife Isabel. She married three times, first to William Huntingdon of Exeter, then to a man named Clarke, and third, as his fourth wife, to Sir John More (1451-1530), the father of Sir Thomas More. The other, better known Dame Alice More, Sir Thomas’s second wife, was ALICE HARPUR. This Dame Alice More was left the manor of Gobions in North Mimms, Hertfordshire but she was expelled from the property in 1534 when her stepson was arrested. She died at Northall, Hertfordshire.
see ALICE HARPUR
Anne More was the daughter Sir George More (November 8, 1553-October 16, 1632) and Anne Poynings (d.1590). She was in the household of her aunt, Lady Egerton, in 1600, when that lady died. Unsupervised, the girl fell in love and eloped with Egerton’s secretary, John Donne (1573-March 31, 1631) in early December 1601. They were married by Donne’s friend Rev. Samuel Brooke and Brooke’s brother Christopher witnessed the ceremony. Keeping the marriage secret, she returned to her father’s house at Loseley until Donne’s letter of February 2, 1601 to his father-in-law made known the true state of affairs. Donne was briefly imprisoned in the Fleet and lost his position with Egerton. This supposedly inspired the epigram "John Donne—Anne Donne—undone." The Archbishop of Canterbury ruled the marriage legal. More allowed his daughter to join her husband after he was freed, but did not release her dowry. They were helped by Anne’s cousin, Francis Wolley (Lady Egerton’s son by an earlier marriage), living in his house at Pyrford. Later they moved to Mitcham, Surrey. In November 1611, Donne went abroad, leaving his wife and children behind. Anne went to stay with a younger sister on the Isle of Wight. On Donne’s return, the family lived in London where Anne died after giving birth to a stillborn child. They had twelve children in all, including Constance (b.1603), John (1604-1662/3), Francis (b.1607), Lucy (1608-1627), Bridget (b.1609), and Mary (1611-1614).
see ANNE CRESACRE
see CATHERINE PAKINGTON
Cecily More was the daughter of Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) and Jane Colte (1488-1511). She is best known for having been given an unusually fine education and for her presence in various More family portraits. Her father is the subject of numerous biographies, most of which say little about his daughters beyond praising their scholarship. In 1525, Cecily married Giles Heron (x. August 4, 1540) who, like her father, was executed for treason, and they had three children: Thomas, John, and Alice. Some sources say Edmund and Jane instead of John and Alice. C. J. Sisson in The Boar’s Head Theatre (1972), says that Heron was granted the manors of Stepney and Hackney by the Bishop of London, which meant they probably lived in Shacklewell House in Stepney until it was lost upon Heron's attainder. Herbert Berry, in a note in his The Boar’s Head Playhouse (1986), corrects this. Heron did not own either manor, only a house and lands in the manor of Hackney. Portraits: drawing by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1526/7, in which she is pregnant; family portraits by Holbein and Rowland Lockey.
CECILY MORE (d.1607+)
Cecily More was the daughter of John More of Crabbet Worth, Sussex and Canon Row, Westminster (d. January 19, 1580/81) and Agnes Moulton (1530-February 28, 1557). By 1572, she had married Henry Audley of Knighton, Dorset and Fawley, Hampshire (d. November 12, 1606), by whom she had two daughters. In 1605, he settled most of his lands in Dorset on her and in his will, dated November 6, 1616, left her his Hampshire property, including Fawley, as well. She was named sole executor. Her surviving daughter contested the will but on November 13, 1607 the judgment went in Cecily's favor.
see DOWSABELL PAGET
Elizabeth More was the daughter of Sir John More (c.1451-1530) and Agnes Graunger (d.1499) and the sister of Sir Thomas More. By 1504, she married John Rastell of London (c.1475-1536) and was the mother of John (d.1536+), Joan (1504-1574), William (1508-1565) and another daughter. Her husband was gone for two years in an attempt to sail to the New World, but only got as far as Ireland. Later, he set up as a printer in various locations. In 1519, he was at Paul's Gate in Cheapside. From 1515 the family had a country house at Monken Hadley, near Elizabeth's father's house, and in 1524, they built a house in Finsbury Fields. Rastell also built a stage for plays, the first such in London. In 1536, he was arrested for denying the clergy's right to tithes. He wrote his will on April 20 and it was proved July 13.
Elizabeth More was the daughter of Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) and Jane Colte (1488-1511). She is best known for having been given an unusually fine education and for her presence in various More family portraits. Her father is the subject of numerous biographies, most of which say little about his daughters beyond praising their scholarship. Elizabeth married William Dauncey (Dauntesey/Daunce/Dauncer) (c.1505-May 28, 1548) and had seven children: John (b.1525), Thomas, Bartholomew, William, Germain, Alice, and Elizabeth. They lived at Canons Park, Middlesex and in London, then (1543+) at Cassiobury, Hertfordshire. Portraits: drawing by Hans Holbein the Younger (inscribed “Lady Barkley”); family portraits by Holbein and Rowland Lockey.
ELIZABETH MORE (April 28, 1552-January 21, 1600)
Elizabeth More was the eldest daughter of Sir William More of Loseley, Surrey (1527-July 1600) and his second wife, Margaret Daniell (d. before 1595). She married three times. Her first husband was Richard Polstead of Albury, Surrey (June 24, 1545-March 31,1576). They were married in Blackfriars, London on November 3, 1567. Accounts of the wedding expenses can be found in an article by John Evans, "The Wedding of Richard Polsted and Elizabeth, Daughter of William More of Loseley, Surrey," in Archaeologia 36 (1855), pp. 35-53. The wedding festivities lasted from November 3 until November 17. They had no children. Elizabeth was her husband's principal heir and executor. Early in her widowhood, she was courted by Tobie Mathew, later Archbishop of York, but she chose as her second husband Sir John Wolley of Thorpe and Pyrford, Surrey (d. February 28, 1595/6), Latin secretary to Queen Elizabeth. She was his second wife. They had at least one son, Sir Francis Wolley (1583-November 7, 1609). Wolley was a member of the Privy Council from 1586. In the 1590s, Elizabeth was a lady of the privy chamber. The queen nicknamed her "sweet apple." Loseley was built during the period 1562-8 and More entertained the queen there on at least four occasions, in 1569, 1576, 1583, and 1591. Although these dates were after his daughter married, she was likely present. In 1594, she left court when her father suddenly fell gravely ill. The queen frequently sent messages to Sir William More through his daughter when she was living with her second husband at court and some of this correspondence is still extant. An undated letter, probably written before 1595 and quoted in the entry for More in the History of Parliament, indicates that More was again a widower. He had given the queen a gown as a gift and when she wore it she took occasion to speak to Elizabeth of her father, saying "ere long I should find a mother-in-law [stepmother], which was herself; but she was afraid of the two widows that are there with you that they would be angry with her for it, and that she would give ten thousand pounds you were twenty years younger, for she had but few such servants as you are." Another letter, in1595, was written after the queen heard that More had not been able to find lodging at court, then on progress, and had been obliged to make a night journey home. She sent him three partridges by way of apology. Unfortunately, as Elizabeth tells her father, a hawk belonging to Sir Robert Cecil killed the birds before they could be delivered. She begs him to pretend to the queen that he received them. In the same letter she tells him that the queen has asked her to send for her son to come to court but that she intends to ignore the command. The boy was apparently with Sir William because Elizabeth also asks him to make sure his tutor makes him practice his French, lest the royal command be renewed. In 1597, according to the History of Parliament, she "privately" married Sir Thomas Egerton of Lincoln’s Inn, York House and Harefield, Middlesex (1540-March 15, 1617). At the time of her death, the earl of Essex was being held in York House and was thought to be dying. He recovered. This second of Egerton's three marriages was happy and the History of Parliament states that her "early loss" was "a crushing blow." Lady Egerton was buried with her second husband, but there is a monument to her memory in the Loseley Chapel of St. Nicholas's Church, Guildford. Her son, Francis Wolley, left £4000 in his will for a monument to his parents and himself in St. Paul's Cathedral, London and made provision for their bodies to be moved there.
MORE or MOORE
see FRANCES BROOKE
Margaret More was the eldest daughter of Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) and Jane Colte (1488-1511). She is best known for having been given an unusually fine education. Her scholarship was praised by contemporaries and successive generations alike. She is also known for having rescued her father's head when it was removed from the spikes at London Bridge. She is said to have kept it until her death and passed it on to one of her daughters. Her father is the subject of numerous biographies, most of which say little about his daughters beyond praising their scholarship. Margaret married William Roper (1498-1578) and had five children: Elizabeth (1523-1560), Mary (d. March 20,1572), Margaret (1526-1578), Thomas (1533-1598), and Anthony (1544-1597). Biography: E. E. Reynolds, Margaret Roper; John Guy, A Daughter's Love: Thomas More and His Dearest Meg (2009); Oxford DNB entry under "Roper [née More], Margaret." Portraits: miniature by Hans Holbein the Younger; the original 1527 Hans Holbein painting of the More family is lost, but a preliminary drawing still exists, as does a copy made by Rowland Lockey c.1592. Lockey also painted two versions of the descendants of Sir Thomas More, adding successive generations.
see MARIA or MARY SCROPE
MARY MORE (May 1582-1615)
Mary More was the daughter of Sir George More of Loseley, Surrey (November 8, 1553-October 16, 1632) and Anne Poynings (d.1590). In May 1596, Lord Cobham proposed a marriage between Mary and his grandson and ward, Francis Coppinger (c.1579-1626+). The young man was sent to Loseley to meet his prospective bride and after the visit sent her a pair of gloves as a love-token. Plans were made for a second visit, but on May 28, 1596, Francis secretly married another woman, his cousin Elizabeth Randolph. Although this marriage was later annulled, there was no more talk of Mary marrying him. On January 17, 1597/8, she wed Nicholas Throckmorton of Paulerspury, Northamptonshire (1562-February 1643/4). Their children were Elizabeth, Anne, Mary (1601-July 31, 1631), Francis (1602-April 9, 1649), Nicholas, George, Edmund (1609-September 10, 1654), and Oliphe (1611-March 25, 1670). In May 1611, after her husband inherited the estate of his uncle, Francis Carew, at Beddington, Surrey, he changed their surname to Carew.
see ELEANOR ROPER
ANNE MORGAN (1529-January 19, 1606)
Anne Morgan was the daughter of Sir Thomas Morgan of Arkestone, Herefordshire and Elizabeth Whitney. On May 21, 1545 she married Henry Carey (March 4,1526-July 23, 1596), later created baron Hunsdon. As Lady Hunsdon, Anne was a lady of the privy chamber. She had ten sons and three daughters, including George, 2nd baron Hunsdon (1547-September 9,1603), Henry (d.1581), John, 3rd baron Hunsdon (d.1617), William (d.1593), Catherine (d. February 24, 1603), Philadelphia (c.1552-February 3, 1627), Edmund (d.1637), Robert (1560-April 12,1639), and Margaret (1567-1605). In 1568 she left court for Berwick-upon-Tweed when Hunsdon was appointed governor there. According to Charlotte Merton's The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, she had to pay domestic staff and even some staff officers out of her own pocket.When Lord Hunsdon died, he left the family in debt, thanks to the expense of serving the queen. Elizabeth Tudor paid Hunsdon’s funeral expenses (£800) and granted the widow an outright gift of £400, a pension of £200 per annum from the Exchequer, and the keepership of Somerset House for life. Lady Hunsdon used some of the money to erect a monument to her late husband in Westminster Abbey. Portrait: While another copy is elsewhere identified as Mary Hill, Mrs. MacWilliam, the portrait at Hatfield c. 1585-90 by a follower of George Gower is called Lady Hunsdon.
LUCY MORGAN (d.1598+)
Lucy Morgan was a gentlewoman at the court of Queen Elizabeth from 1579 to 1582, as evidenced by gifts to her from the queen's wardrobe. She may have married a man named Parker and been the Lucy Parker who, at Yuletide 1588/9, gave the queen a box of cherries as a New Year’s gift. This is the contention of Leslie Hotson in Mr. W.H., his attempt to solve some of the mysteries surrounding Shakespeare's sonnets. He theorized that Lucy Morgan later became "Lucy Negro, Abbess of Clerkenwell" and was also the "dark lady" of the sonnets. See LUCE BAYNHAM for an account of the life of Black Luce. Lucy Morgan, however, does appear to have fallen on hard times and turned to a life of sin. The records of Bridewell for May 3, 1598, include charges brought against her for living at the house of Edward Tilsley at Pichet Hatch at the upper end of Aldersgate, where she was visited by Tilsley once a fortnight and also visited by friends of his. Tilsley gave her three shillings a week for her maintenance and paid the rent on the house. There is no record that she was imprisoned for immoral behavior, perhaps because the testimony also revealed that Sir Matthew Morgan gave her an allowance of ten pounds when he was in England and had sent her five pounds at Christmas. Sir Matthew (c.1563-1602+) was undoubtedly a relative, although the connection is unclear. He was the third son of Edward Morgan of Pencarn, Monmouthshire (1530-1585) and Frances Leigh. Given his life dates and those of the fourth son, Charles (1575?-1643?), it is possible Lucy was their sister.
ALICE MORIN (d.1602)
Alice Morin was the wife of Swithin Wells (c.1536-December 10, 1591), who ran a secret school for Catholic boys in Monkton Farleigh, Wiltshire from c.1576-1582. In about 1585, they moved to London, taking a house in Gray’s Inn Lane, Holborn. It was raided in November 1591. Alice and her husband and others who had gathered to hear Mass were tried in December and condemned. Swithin Wells was hanged opposite his house, but Alice received a last-minute reprieve. Instead of hanging, she was imprisoned in Newgate, where she remained until her death.
Elizabeth Morison was the daughter of Sir Richard Morison (1510-March 12, 1556) and Bridget Hussey (c.1514-January 12, 1601). Her father was a diplomat and her parents were abroad from 1551-1553, when Elizabeth remained in England. They returned briefly at the start of Mary Tudor’s reign, collected their family, and returned to the Continent as exiles. Elizabeth married first William Norris (d. December 25, 1579), by whom she was the mother of Francis, 2nd baron Norris (July 6, 1579-January 29, 1622/3). She married her second husband, Henry Clinton, 2nd earl of Lincoln (1540-September 29, 1616), on October 20, 1586. Their children were Sir Henry (1587-1641), Robert, and possibly Elizabeth (1589-1636). See ELIZABETH CLINTON. According to Joan Barbara Greenbaum Goldsmith's unpublished PhD dissertation, All the Queen's Women: the changing place and perception of aristocratic women in Elizabethan England, 1558-1620, Elizabeth and her second husband separated in the 1590s. This may have been the case, but the earl’s brother and his wife had also separated by 1590 (see MARY TYRRELL). According to an entry in the History of Parliament, Elizabeth’s son, Francis Norris, claimed that the earl treated his mother like a prisoner, having her guarded by “an Italian murderer.”
Jane Sybilla Morison was the daughter of Sir Richard Morison (1510-March 12, 1556) and Bridget Hussey (c.1514-January 12, 1601). She was born in Augsburg while that city was under siege. She returned with her parents to England when Mary Tudor became queen, but then went into exile with them until Elizabeth Tudor took the throne. In c.1571, she married her stepbrother, Lord Edward Russell (1551-1572/3). Some accounts give them a daughter, Laetitia while others say they had no children. Her second husband, wed in 1574, was Arthur, 14th baron Grey de Wilton (1536-1593). Jane Sybilla was naturalized by Act of Parliament in 1576, apparently because she had been born abroad, although this doesn’t seem to have been a necessity. Many English children were born on the Continent during the Marian exile. Jane Sybilla’s children from her second marriage were Thomas (1575-July 9, 1614), Bridget (1577-July 28, 1648), and William (1579-1605). In the previous incarnation of this entry I stated that she was buried on June 26, 1580. I have no idea where that information came from, but it is not accurate. Not only did she live to see her children grow up, she was still alive when her son Thomas died as a prisoner in the Tower of London.
see JANE THROCKMORTON
see ANNE PUTTENHAM
Bridget Morrison was the daughter of Sir Charles Morrison of Cassiobury, Hertfordshire (1548-April 1599) and Dorothy Clarke (1550-May 1618). In 1592, Bridget married Robert Radcliffe (June 12,1569-September 22,1629) and as Lady Fitzwalter and later as countess of Sussex she received dedications from Robert Greene (1592), Thomas Kyd (1595), George Chapman (1598) and others. They had four children—Elizabeth (May 31, 1594-December 6, 1618), Henry (August 1,1596-1620), Thomas (July 15,1597-1619), and Honora (August 27, 1598-1613). Bridget was described by a contemporary as “of very goodly and comely personage and a rare wit” but her husband was not faithful to her. He kept a mistress, Mrs. Sylvester Morgan, Bridget’s former waiting gentlewoman, and set her up as a rival countess at a Mr. Daylies’ house. He even hired a Captain Whitlock to tell Bridget how much he was spending on his mistress’s clothing. In 1601, Bridget left her husband. She and her children were granted an allowance of £1700 a year and probably went back to Cassiobury to live with her mother. Later Sussex took up with another woman, Frances Meautas, widow of Edward Shute, by whom he had a daughter, Jane. Frances plotted to poison Bridget but failed (see FRANCES MEAUTAS). Bridget’s dying wish was that her husband not marry his concubine, but of course he did.
BRIDGET MORRISON or MORISON
see BRIDGET HUSSEY
Elizabeth Mors was the daughter of William Mors/Mores/Morris, sergeant of the hall to Henry VII. In 1483, she was a servant, probably a waiting gentlewoman, in the household of Sir Richard Delabeare (De La Bere/Delabere/Delaber) of Kinnersley, Herefordshire (c.1440-July 15, 1514). At that time he was married to his first wife, Anne Touchet, daughter of Lord Audley. When Henry Stafford, 2nd duke of Buckingham rebelled against Richard III, he sent his son and heir, Edward, to Walter Devereux, Lord Ferrers, at Woebley, Herefordshire, where he was entrusted to Sir Richard Delabeare. Delabeare took the six-year-old boy to his own house at Kinnersley (also spelled Kynnardsley) and there placed him in the care of Elizabeth Mors. It is not clear what happened to the twenty or so retainers who accompanied the young Lord Stafford, but when the king offered a reward of £1000 for Edward, he was in great danger. He was twice smuggled out of Kinnersley when it was about to be searched. Sir Richard was arrested, as was young Edward’s mother, the duchess of Buckingham (Katherine Woodville). During a third search of Kinnersley, Elizabeth Mors took Edward into the park and sat there with him on her lap for four hours until it was safe to go back to the house. To protect Edward while they took him to another location, Elizabeth shaved his head and dressed him like a girl (shaved heads were in fashion then for women). He rode seated sideways on a pillion to be taken to the house of one of Elizabeth’s friends. The journey was made openly, during the day, and apparently kept him out of King Richard's hands. There is no further mention of him until he reappears, as 3rd duke of Buckingham, after Henry VII became king in 1485. Some twenty years after these events (c.1503), Elizabeth told the story so that it could be written down for the duke. By then, she had married Sir Richard and therefore was referred to in the account as Dame Elizabeth Delabeare. The date of Elizabeth's marriage is unknown, but she and Dealbeare had ten sons and six daughters. According to the memorial brass in the cathedral church in Hereford, Delabere had twenty-one children altogether, eleven sons and ten daughters. After his death, Elizabeth married Thomas Baskerville.
Avise or Avis Mortelman was the daughter of Henry Mortelman (d.1515+) and his wife Joan. Mortelman owned Ram's Head in Petty Wales, London at the time of his death and left it in equal parts to his widow, Joan, and his daughter, Avise. Joan, however, remarried, taking as her second husband Nicholas Jenyn (d.1532), the king's skinner, and Avise was unable to claim her inheritance until twenty-seven years after her mother's death. Avise also married twice. Her first husband was Nicholas Gibson (d.1540), a grocer who was also an alderman and sheriff of London. Gibson founded a free school at Radcliffe/Ratcliff (now Stepney), Middlesex in 1536, providing £50 for that purpose. In 1553, an almshouse was also established there. Meanwhile, in a will dated September 23, 1540, Gibson left his wife a house in Stepney. In 1541, Avise remarried. Her second husband was a member of Henry VIII's court, Sir Anthony Knyvett, a gentleman who reportedly had accumulated serious debts by 1536. One account suggests that he put aside his first wife, Matilda, widow of John Dennis, to marry the wealthy Avise. Whatever the truth of that story, Knyvett made his will in June 1548 and it was proved in July 1549. Also in 1549, the Cooper's Company became Lady Knyvett's tenants at Radcliffe. In 1552, she asked them to take over the school her first husband had founded. She was probably buried with him in the Stepney Parish Church of St. Dunstan. She appears to have had no children by either marriage.
see ELEANOR CORNWALL
see ELEANOR FINCH
see MARGARET WOODFORD
Elizabeth Moton was the daughter of Sir Reynald or Reginald Moton or Motton of Peckleton, Leicestershire (1409-March 31, 1445) and Margaret Brugge (1411-April 15, 1474). She married Ralph Pole or de la Pole of Radburne or Radbourne, Derbyshire (1435-May 31, 1492) and was the mother of Margaret, John (1460-1490), Thomas, Alban (d.1515+), and others. Upon her son John's death, she became the guardian of her grandson, German Pole (1482-1552). He married Anne Plumpton, daughter of Sir Robert, in 1499, which is why two letters from Elizabeth have been preserved in the Plumpton Correspondence. In 1502, German and his wife were living in Derbyshire, probably with his grandmother. He was apparently content to have her remain there after he was of age to inherit, but in a letter written on July 10, 1504, Elizabeth reveals that she has taken a house "within the Freres at Derby.” There she intends "to dispose myselfe to serve God dilygently, and kepe a narrow house and but few of meany . . . it is tyme for me to get me into a litle corner, and so wyll I doe."
see ANN RADCLIFFE
see MARY HILL
MOUNTAGUE, MONTAGU or MONTAGUE (d. 1581+) (maiden name unknown)
Mrs. Mountague was the queen’s silkwoman and also provided silks to Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. She gave Queen Elizabeth her first pair of knitted silk stockings as a New Year’s gift in 1577. They were plain black but so delighted the queen that she would never wear cloth stockings again. Alice is first found in royal accounts as Alice Smythe, silkwoman, in 1558, providing “gold, sylver, sylke, and sylkework of diverse sortes” for the coronation. A marriage license was granted on June 10, 1562 to Alice Smithe, widow, of the City of London, and Roger Mountague and from Michaelmas 1562 onward Alice Mountague appears as royal silkwoman in the queen’s accounts. From Michaelmas 1581, Roger Mountague is listed as the queen’s silkman and Alice disappears. Roger continued in this post until the end of the reign in 1603. It seems most likely that he was Alice and Roger’s son.
(c.1567-October 1606) (maiden name unknown)
Marie Mountjoy was a Frenchwoman, although she might have been born in England of immigrant parents. At around age sixteen, she married Christopher Mountjoy (before1564-1620), a tiremaker (he made wigs and headdresses) in London. In 1582, they were living in the household of John Dewman, tailor, in St. Martin le Grand. They had one child, a daughter named Mary. By 1596, the family was living in Silver Street. On February 27 of that year, “Mrs. Monjoyes childe” was buried. From this wording Charles Nicholl (in The Lodger Shakespeare, His Life on Silver Street) concludes that Marie was having an affair and bore an illegitimate child and further suggests that the father was Henry Wood (August 18, 1566-1598+) a cloth trader and a married man. On September 10, 1597, Marie “lost out of her purse . . . a gold ring, a hoop ring & a French crown.” On November 22, she consulted the astrologer, Simon Forman, who had a reputation for finding lost items. On December 1, 1597, she consulted Forman again, this time in his capacity as a physician. She believed she was pregnant. He predicted that she would miscarry. She was there again on March 7, 1598. Henry Wood and his wife (separately) also consulted Forman. On one occasion, Mrs. Wood was apparently considering a partnership with Marie Mountjoy. Marie supported the marriage of her daughter, Mary, to her husband’s apprentice, Stephen Belott, in November 1604. She died less than two years later and was buried on October 30, 1606 at St. Olave’s.
Mary Mountjoy was the daughter of Christopher Mountjoy (before 1564-1620) and his wife Marie (c.1567-1606). In November 1605, she married her father’s apprentice, Stephen Belott. They lived at first in a chamber in the house of George Wilkins in St. Giles, Cripplegate, then moved back in with Mary’s father, and in 1608 were again living in St. Giles, where their daughter Anne was baptized on October 23. Another daughter, Jane, was baptized on December 17, 1609.
BARBARA MOWBRAY (c.1559-July 31,1616)
Barbara Mowbray was the daughter of John Mowbray, laird of Barnbougle and Elizabeth Kirkcaldy. She had joined the English household of Mary Queen of Scots by 1584 and in 1585 married Gilbert Curle (1546-1609), the queen's secretary. The marriage was arranged by Mary herself. They had a large family of eight children, including a child born in early 1587, the year Mary was executed. After the execution, Mary's ladies were held at Fotheringay until July 30, when they were taken to Peterborough Cathedral for Mary's funeral. It was September before they were finally released and allowed to leave England. The entire Curle family, including Gilbert's sister Elizabeth went to the Continent, settling first at Douai (some accounts say Paris) and later to Antwerp. Two of Barbara's sons, James (d.1615) and Hippolytus (1592-1638) became Jesuit priests. The latter commissioned a monument to his mother and his aunt in St. Andrew's Church, Antwerp, although the figures are of their patron saints, not the women themselves. One of Barbara's daughters was named Mary and was probably the queen's goddaughter.
see ELIZABETH TALBOT
GILLES MOWBRAY (d.1587+)
Gilles Mowbray was the daughter of John Mowbray, laird of Barnbougle and Elizabeth Kirkcaldy and the sister of Barbara Mowbray. She joined the English household of Mary Queen of Scots a month before her sister married Gilbert Curle. After Mary was executed, her ladies were held at Fotheringay until July 30, when they were taken to Peterborough Cathedral for Mary's funeral. It was September before they were finally released and allowed to leave England. The queen had left Gilles 1000 francs and asked her aunt, the abbess of the convent of St. Pierre in Rheims, to take her in. Gilles, however, returned to Scotland instead and there married Sir John Smith of Barnton.
see JOAN STRETE
KATHERINE MOYLE (d. February 1587)
Katherine Moyle was the daughter and coheir of Sir Thomas Moyle of Gray' s Inn, London, Clerkenwell, Middlesex, and Eastwell, Kent (d. October 2, 1560), surveyor of the court of augmentations, and Catherine Jorden (d.1560+). In 1547, she married Thomas Finch of The Moat, Canterbury, Kent (d. March 1563). In 1559 and 1560, her father started to divide his property between his daughters but this division was incomplete before he died. By his will, dated August 1, 1560 and proved on November 14, 1560, he divided his lands in Devon, Kent, and Somerset between Katherine and Thomas Kempe, son and heir of her younger sister Amy (sometimes called Anne) and Sir Thomas Kempe. It is unclear when Amy, Kempe's second wife, died, but they had seven sons. He took a third wife c.1571. Among the half dozen properties that went to Katherine Moyle Finch was the mansion of Eastwell, Kent, which then became the main residence of the Finch family. Katherine had at least five sons and one daughter, including Anthony (d.1568), Moyle (c.1550-1614), and Henry (1558-1625). Her husband drowned in the wreck of the Greyhound. The ship was caught in a storm on its way to the war in France and ran aground near Rye. Some 200 lives were lost. Katherine was granted administration of the estate on March 31, 1563. Her second husband was Sir Nicholas St. Leger (Sellenger) of Ulcombe, Kent (d.c.1589). They lived at Eastwell Place and at Beamstone, Kent, another manor she had inherited from her father. Both were supposed to revert to her son Moyle after her death, but she refused to accept his interest in the reversion of Beamstone, involving St. Leger in a legal dispute. Moyle Finch's father-in-law, Sir Thomas Heneage, persuaded St. Leger abandon the claim and agree not to take any profits from the manor after Katherine's death. Another Finch manor, Packmanston, had earlier passed permanently into St. Leger's hands.
Margaret Mulsho was the daughter of John Mulsho of Finedon, Northamptonshire and Eleanor Stukeley. She is probably the Margaret Mulsho listed as a chamberer to Catherine of Aragon in November 1514. Her marriage settlement to Sir George Gresley of Drakelow, Derbyshire (1495-April 21, 1548) is dated February 8, 1523. Their children were William (May 12, 1525-May 23, 1573) and Katherine (d. April 22, 1572+). Her death can be dated by Gresley's second marriage, to Catherine Sutton, by whom he had several more children.
MARY MULSHO (c. 1581-1653)
Mary Mulsho was the only daughter and heir of William Mulsho of Gayhurst (Gothurst/ Gotehurst), Buckinghamshire. In 1596, she brought Gayhurst House to her marriage to Everard Digby (May 16, 1578-January 30, 1606) of Stoke Dry, Rutland and Tilton, Leicestershire. Digby was described by a contemporary, Father John Gerard, as being handsome, 6' tall, skilled at riding and at arms, an accomplished musician and a generous patron. Although Mary came from a staunchly Protestant family, Gerard, a Jesuit, converted both husband and wife to Catholicism in about 1599. They had two sons, Kenelm (July 11, 1603-June 11, 1665) and John (1605-July 16, 1645). In August 1605, after the birth of her younger son, Mary joined a group of some thirty devout Catholics on a pilgrimage to St. Winifred's well in Wales. With her was John Percy, a Jesuit then living at Gayhurst. Two months later, Mary's husband was recruited by those plotting the death of King James. Mary was at Coughton, home of the Throckmortons, in early November when the Jesuit priest Henry Garnett received a letter from Digby dated November 9. She overheard a part of the discussion about it. Garnett later wrote: "What did shee? Alas what but cry." As Jessie Childs points out in God's Traitors: Terror and Faith in Elizabethan England, that was not all she did. She also sent four horses "ready furnished for service" to the rebels at Huddington. The Gunpowder Plot, however, was doomed to failure and Digby was arrested and charged with treason. During the two and a half months between his arrest and trial, he managed to smuggle letters and poems out of the Tower to his wife and sons and these have been preserved. Meanwhile, in Buckinghamshire, the sheriff ransacked Gayhurst, taking everything down "to the very floor of the great parlour" and including Mary's underwear. She called herself "wholly destitute" when she wrote to the earl of Salisbury for relief. The sheriff was reprimanded but according to Everard Digby's entry in the Oxford DNB, assistance was "ineffectively implemented." After her husband was executed, Mary continued to live at Gayhurst. Her sons were raised there in their early years. The younger boy, John, was sent to the English College at St. Omer in Flanders, under an alias, when he was thirteen. Mary's companion at Gayhurst was Dorothy Habington and John Percy continued to minister to her spiritual needs. Childs lists the household at Gayhurst as part of his "church" in 1609. In 1614, Mary was one of the benefactors of the Benedictine convent in Brussels. In 1620, Mary's son Kenelm, then seventeen, wanted to marry Venetia Stanley. Mary did not approve and sent him abroad. They finally wed in 1625, but not until after her affair with a married man, Edward Sackville, 4th earl of Dorset. Kenelm claimed that his mother had been reconciled with Venetia before Venetia's death in 1633. Mary lived another twenty years.
Elizabeth Munden was the daughter of Thomas Munden of Watton at Stone, Hertfordshire. She appears to have married three times, first to Robert Burgoyne of Sutton Bedfordshire (c.1485-October 21, 1545), an auditor, by whom she had Robert (December 21,1540-May 2, 1613), Dorothy, Elizabeth, and George. When Burgoyne died, there was money due him that, as executor, Elizabeth had to collect. Some genealogies have her married to Robert Lytton (1513-March 1551) but before the end of the reign of Edward VI in 1553, she had married Edward Twyneho (Twinio/Twyne) (by 1518-1577), who was M.P. from Old Sarum in 1554. With him, she pressed for the payment of £40 owed by Sir Fulke Greville, which resulted in Greville being declared an outlaw. He surrendered himself in 1555 and was pardoned.
Margaret Mundy was the daughter of Sir John Mundy of St. Peter’s, Cheapside, London (d. 1537), a goldsmith who was Lord Mayor in 1522-3. Some accounts say her mother was his first wife, whose name is not known. Others list her as the child of his second wife, Julian Browne (d. September 1537). In 1526, Margaret married Nicholas Jennings/Jenyns/Jennyns of Preston, Lancashire and All Hallows, Barking, London (d.1532), by whom she had Bernard (d.1552), Juliana (d.1595), and Anna. There may have been another daughter, Margaret, but her appearance in Jennings genealogies seems to be a case of attributing a daughter by Margaret Mundy's third husband to the wrong spouse. Margaret was the second wife of Nicholas Jennings. Her second husband was named Howard and was almost certainly Lord Edmund Howard (c.1478-March 19, 1538/9), a younger son of the 2nd duke of Norfolk and half brother to both the 3rd duke and the countess of Wiltshire (Anne Boleyn's mother). Margaret was his third wife, married after 1532 and before July 12, 1537. One of her stepchildren was Catherine Howard, who was also, briefly, queen of England. Howard was Comptroller of Calais during most of their marriage. Lady Howard is mentioned three times in The Lisle Letters, although she is misidentified there as Howard's second wife (see DOROTHY TROYES). She was on her way to Calais on April 8, 1535. On January 5, 1537, she and Sir Edmund were in London, where he had been ill, but they expected to return to Calais shortly. And in an undated letter that the editor suggests is from 1535, Sir Edmund thanks Lady Lisle for the medicine she gave him, which "caused the stone to break" but "made me piss my bed this night, for the which my wife hath sore beaten me, and saying it is children's parts to bepiss their bed." According to The History of Parliament entry for Sir George Howard (d.1580), inaccurate accounts of his life have George married to Margaret Mundy by 1537. The author of the entry states that this is not compatible with the known facts of her life, but does not seem to be aware that Margaret's second husband was probably Sir George's father. By 1547, Margaret had taken a third husband, Henry Mannock or Mannox of London and (later) Haddenham, Cambridgeshire and Hemingford Grey, Huntingdonshire (d.1564). Mannock's entry in The History of Parliament states that he is not the same Henry Mannox who was Catherine Howard’s first lover, but it also says that Catherine's lover was executed in 1541. Two other lovers were, but not Mannox. Whoever this Henry Mannock was, the marriage was not a successful one. In his will, made on March 18, 1564 and proved September 4, 1564, he disinherited Margaret for "unnatural behavior" and their son for "naughty, light and lewd behavior." His heir was to be their daughter, Margaret Mannock, who would inherit when she reached her twentieth birthday or married. Margaret Mundy was buried at Streatham, Surrey on January 22, 1564/5.
see ELIZABETH DENT
see AGNES WHARTON
see ELIZABETH CURWEN; ELIZABETH DENKARING
Elizabeth Muston was the daughter of William Muston of Cropwell, Nottinghamshire (d.1486). In about 1491, she married Sir Richard Whetehill, (c.1466-November 1536), mayor of Calais in 1533-4. His surname was also spelled Wheathill, Wheathell, Whethill, Whettyll, Whethil, Whetthyll, and Whettles. Their children included Elizabeth (1504-1542), Robert (c.1507-1563+), Nicholas (d. March 1546), Margaret (d.1572), Gilbert, Katherine, and Margery (1519-1552). In 1531, Elizabeth's oldest son, Robert, was promised the coveted post of a Calais Spear, but the appointment had to wait upon a vacant room. When he was still waiting in March of 1534, his mother went to England and persuaded the queen to ask the king for a particular room held by one John Highfield, who had been on his deathbed since the previous October. Unfortunately, Highfield recovered, restored to health by January 1535. In April 1536, Elizabeth was so distraught by the situation that, in the words of Lord Lisle, the Lord Deputy of Calais, she "came upon my poor wife, in Pilate’s voice railing upon me, many slanderous words and untrue, as shall be proved . . . which did not a little grieve me, seeing that I did her no wrong." The incident apparently took place in church. In the first week of November of that year, Elizabeth's husband died. He wrote his will on October 26, 1536, giving his wife control of all lands and rents set aside for the marriages of four daughters and two sons. The sons were to have five marks a year until they married and the girls were to receive 200 marks each upon their marriages. Robert's marriage, to Jane Grenville, had already been negotiated, and took place the next year. At the same time, Lady Whetehill was obliged to write at least two letters to Lord Cromwell to ask for his assistance. Robert had contested his father's will, in the process reducing Elizabeth and her other children to poverty. In the letter written from Calais on April 20, 1537, she states that she was married to Sir Richard for forty-six years and bore him fourteen children. The second letter, written on November 7, 1538, indicates some progress but reveals a new sticking point. Elizabeth is content to take a hundred marks a year and let Robert have £10 more per annum than his father's will provided, but now Robert wants a share of the house she has been living in since her husband died, "a little house in the country with a little farm . . . the which farm my husband hath given me by his will." Robert wants to move in, with his wife, and take over half the house. Elizabeth "will not agree, considering his unnatural handling of me that am his mother . . . he driveth me unto extreme trouble and poverty."
see DOROTHY CURZON
see KATHERINE HYDE
see HELEN NICOLSON
see CECILY DELVES
text ©2008-14 Kathy Lynn Emerson (all rights reserved)